Oregon Historical Quarterly/Volume 11/Oregon Counties

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THE QUARTERLY

OF THE

Oregon Historical Society.



Volume XI
Number 1
MARCH, 1910


[Copyright, 1910, by Oregon Historical Society]
[The Quarterly disavows responsibility (or the positions taken by contributors to its pages.]

OREGON COUNTIES

Their Creations and the Origins of Their Names.

Address by Frederick V. Holman, President of the Oregon Historical Society, at Its Annual Meeting, Portland, Oregon, December 18, 1909.

When I agreed to write an address on Oregon Counties—their creations and the origins of their names—I was not aware of the time and trouble it involved. Few of the early books on Oregon have indices. And this is true of the "Oregon Archives," which contain the Journals of the Provisional Legislature, and of several of the compilations of early laws. In consequence I was compelled to go over several thousand pages of books, page by page, and, in some cases, to do this several times. Some of the early laws of Oregon have not been printed, one on the creation of Clatsop County cannot be found. Excepting some of the compilations of early laws and the manuscripts expressly noted herein, I have in my library all the books, pamphlets, and reports cited in this address. I have endeavored to go to original sources, as far as possible, and not to rely on statements or impressions at second hand.

In an appendix to this address I set forth the descriptions of the boundaries of the respective counties as originally created. There have been numerous Acts passed changing, mostly in small ways, the boundary lines of counties. To set forth all these changes would make this address too long. I must leave these matters to the future historians of the several counties.

To a better understanding of these counties, and, for the reason that most of the earlier counties were large and later counties were created out of pre-existing counties, I have arranged these counties chronologically, instead of alphabetically.


Early Counties Had Natural Boundaries.

An examination of the map will show that many of the counties in Oregon, particularly west of the Cascade Mountains, are very irregular in shape. This is due to the fact that their boundaries were made according to physical conditions,—the situation of mountains, rivers, and streams, which make, what may be called, natural boundaries. In addition, when the population of Oregon was small, the size of the counties was of little moment, for the white population was mostly in small settlements west of the Cascade Mountains. When Wasco County, comprising all of Eastern Oregon, was created in 1854, its population was small and mostly living near the Columbia River, a part of its northern boundary.

There were no official surveys of land in Oregon by the United States Government prior to the passage of the Oregon donation land law of September 27, 1850. In the Act establishing the Territory of Oregon, approved August 14, 1848, all laws of the Oregon Provisional Government were recognized excepting only laws relating to the disposition of land in Oregon. Under the Oregon donation land law claims settled on prior to its passage were, in effect, recognized and patents, in course of time, were issued to lawful claimants, and they were granted patents without regard to township or section lines, after governmental surveys had been made. The surveys of the Willamette Meridian and of the Base Line were begun in June, 1851. The first contract for governmental surveys in Oregon is dated May 28, 1851. Prior to that time county lines could not be established with reference to governmental surveys. Up to the year 1856, parts only of the portions of Oregon west of the Cascade Mountains had been officially surveyed. The first county, the boundaries of which had reference to official surveys, was Multnomah County, created December 22, 1854.

The number of counties has increased, from the original four districts, to thirty-four. Two of the original four, Twality and Clackamas, included all of what is now the State of Washington.

Oregon Counties Now in the State of Washington.

Washington Territory was created out of the northern part of Oregon by Act of Congress, approved March 2, 1853. Prior to that time a number of counties had been created in that part of Oregon by its Provisional and Territorial Legislatures. Of these counties I shall refer only to Vancouver (now Clark) County. I spent much time in an endeavor to find the Act creating Vancouver District or County, but without finding the Act or the boundaries. Neither the Journals of the Legislatures nor the published laws show any record of it. At last I applied to Mr. George H. Himes, the efficient Assistant Secretary of the Oregon Historical Society, who had been away from Portland for several weeks during my search. He found a copy of this Act in the Oregon Historical Library. I believe it to be the only copy in existence. It is contained in a manuscript book setting forth copies of laws of the Provisional Legislature approved by Governor George Abernethy in August, 1845. Each of these laws is attested by the genuine signature of J. E. Long, Secretary of the Provisional Government. These copies are apparently all the laws passed by the Provisional Legislature at its session, at Oregon City, begun June 24, 1845, which were approved by the Governor. According to the "Oregon Archives," this session adjourned July 5, 1845, t0 meet August 5, 1845. After meeting according to adjournment it held continuous meetings until August 20, 1845, when it adjourned sine] die. Among these copies of laws is one passed July 3, 1845, an d fi ye passed July 5, 1845, all of which were approved August 15, 1845. The only acts which, according to the Journal, as set forth in the "Oregon Archives," were passed in July, 1845, an ^ are not contained in these copies, are: "The bill concerning the sittings of the Legislature," passed July 3, and "The bill for locating county seat of Tuality," passed July 5, and two bills granting divorces, passed July 3. None of these laws is contained in the compilation of the laws of 1843-1849, published in 1853, or otherwise printed so* far as I have been able to ascertain. The next Legislature should cause these laws to be printed.

This book formerly belonged to Judge William Strong. After his death it was given by his son, Thomas N. Strong, of Portland, to the Oregon Historical Society. Judge Strong was appointed a Judge of Oregon Territory in 1849, arrived in Oregon in August, 1850. His judicial district comprised all of Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River, which was the original Vancouver District, and also Clatsop County.

This Act creating Vancouver County appears on page 24 of this manuscript book. The following is a correct and full copy:

"An Act to Organize the District of Vancouver, passed 1 8th Aug., 1845.

"Be it enacted by the House of Representatives of Oregon Territory as follows

"That all that portion of the Territory of Oregon lying north of the middle of the main channel, of the Columbia River, shall be and the same is hereby declared a seperate District, under the name and style of Vancouver District and the said District shall be entitled to elect one member of the House of Representatives, at the next annual Election.

"This act to take effect and be in force from and after its passage —

"Oregon City 20th Aug. 1845.

"Attest J. E. Long "Approved

"Approved (Signed) Geo. Abernethy."

This District was named for Captain George Vancouver, R. N., the explorer, who was in charge of what is known as Vancouver's Voyage in 1790- 1795. His expedition was on the North Pacific Coast in the years 1792, 1793, and 1794. The first Oregon Territorial Legislature, September 3, 1849, changed the name of Vancouver County to that of Clark in honor of Captain William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The following is a correct and full copy of the Act changing the name of Vancouver County to Clark, and the only law I have found on the subject:

"AN ACT, to change the name of Vancouver County.' "Section 1. Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon, That the name of the county of Vancouver be, and hereby is, changed to Clark.

"Sec. 2. That all acts, or parts of acts, coming within the purview of this act, are hereby repealed.

"Sec. 3. This act to take effect from and after its passage."

"Passed, September 3d, 1849."

(Local Laws of the Territory of Oregon of 1850-1, page 54).

In the copy of this Act, as printed in said Local Laws, the name Clark is in italics.

In an Act passed by the Oregon Territorial Legislature January 3, 1854, after Clark County had become a part of Washington Territory, releasing Clark County from the payment of certain taxes due to the Territory of Oregon by that County, the name is spelled Clark. (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 18).

In Abbott's "Real Property Statutes of Washington Territory From 1843 to 1889," page 69, this Act of September 3, 1849, is set forth. It erroneously spells the name Clarke. As this work of Abbott's gives all the laws in relation to the creation, boundaries, and names of counties in Washington Territory to 1889, it may be said, safely, that the name of Clark County has never been changed to Clarke. Abbott cites no law in relation to the change of name of this County, other than said Act of September 3, 1849. Tne heading of this Act changing the name of Vancouver to Clark, as printed in Abbott's book, is "Vancouver or Clarke County," which shows that the misspelling of the name Clark was not done inadvertently. But that does not change the name. An Act of a Legislature is more authoritative than ignorant or deliberate misspelling in a private compilation. It is to be regretted that so valuable a work is thus marred.

It is to be hoped that as this County was intended to be named in honor of Captain William Clark, and as adding a final "e" to the name makes it appear to be named for some unknown man named Clarke and, as the use of such name is wholly unauthorized, that the proper authorities of Clark County, and especially its Superior Court, hereafter will use the correct name. A Court should follow the law.

Early History of the Original Oregon Country.

For a better understanding I think it well to give a brief statement of some facts in connection with the original Oregon Country and the formation of the Oregon Provisional Government.

Prior to the boundary treaty of June 15, 1846, what is now the State of Oregon, was only a part of what, prior to that time, was known as the Oregon Country. The southern boundary of the latter was well known. It was latitude fortytwo, or what is now the northern boundary of California and Nevada. Its western boundary was the Pacific Ocean, its eastern boundary was the Rocky Mountains, and its northern boundary was latitude fifty-four degrees, forty minutes, on which was the southern boundary of Russian America, the present southern boundary of Alaska. This northern boundary of the Oregon Country was supposed to run along that latitude from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky Mountains.

From October 20, 1818, to June 15, 1846, the Oregon Country, under conventions between the United States and Great Britain, was free and open to occupation by the citizens and subjects of these two countries, being what was called "joint-occupancy." There were no laws made by either of these countries which applied to all the inhabitants of the Oregon Country, but Canada had some criminal laws which, in a way, applied to British subjects, including officers and employees of the Hudson's Bay Company.

In 1842, prior to the immigration of that year, the population of Oregon south of the Columbia River, excluding Indians, was about one hundred and two white citizens of the United States, men, women and children, of whom about seventy were men. These were called Americans. There were also about sixty-three French-Canadians, who were British subjects. These were mostly former employees of the Hudson's Bay Company. In these numbers are not included Indian women, who were wives of white men, and half-breed children.

October 5, 1842, there arrived at Oregon City the immigration of 1842, consisting of about one hundred and twentyfive persons, of whom a few more than half were men. May 30, 1843, fifty-three of these immigrants, of whom twenty-five were men, left for California.

May 2, 1843, at a public meeting held at Champooick [Champoeg], Oregon, attended by one hundred and two men, Americans and British, the latter being almost wholly French Canadians, by the close vote of fifty-two for, and fifty against, a 'provisional government was formed. Certain officers were elected and a legislative committee of six was appointed to report July 5, 1843. The report of this committee was adopted at a public meeting held at Champooick, July 5, 1843. ("Oregon Archives," page 23). It divided the Oregon Country into four Districts. After the creation of Clatsop and Polk Districts the Provisional Legislature, by an Act approved December 22, 1845 (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 35), changed these Districts to Counties, and these political or civil divisions of Oregon have been called counties ever since.

The Original Four Districts or Counties.

The original four Districts were named Twality, Clackamas, Yamhill, and Champooick. Of these Districts, Twality and Clackamas were the northern, and Yamhill and Champooick the southern.

The northern boundary of Twality and Clackamas was the supposed northern boundary of the Oregon Country, viz.: latitude fifty-four degrees and forty minutes. The southern boundary of Twality was the Yamhill River and, presumably, a line which would be the westerly continuation of the Yamhill River to the Pacific Ocean, the latter being the western boundary of Twality District. Its eastern boundary was the Willamette River, and, presumably, an extension of a line from its mouth north to the north line of the Oregon Country. Its full boundaries, as is the case with those of the other three Districts, are somewhat uncertain.

The southern boundary of Clackamas was a supposed line drawn from the mouth of Pudding River running due east to the Rocky Mountains, the latter being the eastern boundary of Clackamas District. Its western boundary was the Willamette River, and, north of that river, the eastern line of Twality District.

The southern line of Yamhill and Champooick Districts was the northern California and Nevada lines as they are today. The northern boundary of Yamhill District was the south line of Twality District, i. e., the Yamhill River and an indefinite line running west from that river to the Pacific Ocean, the latter being the westerly boundary of Yamhill District. Its eastern boundary was the Willamette River and a supposed line running south from the latter river to the California line.

The northern boundary of Champooick District was the south line of Clackamas County, i. e., the supposed line running east from the mouth of Pudding River to the Rocky Mountains, the latter being the eastern boundary of Champooick District. Its western boundary was the Willamette River and a supposed line running south from the latter river to the California line.

The boundaries of these four Districts, as adopted on the report of the Legislative Committee, are hereinafter set forth.

To make a rough map showing these four Districts, take a map of the original Oregon Country and, at a point where the Willamette River flows into the Columbia, draw a line running north to< latitude fifty-four degrees and forty minutes. Then show the Willamette River from its mouth to, say, Springfield, in Lane County, then draw a line south from Springfield to the California line. This will be the boundary separating Twality and Clackamas Districts and Yamhill and Champooick Districts. Draw a line from the mouth of the Yamhill River west to the Pacific Ocean. This will be the line separating Twality and Yamhill Districts. Then draw a line from the mouth of Pudding River east to the Rocky Mountains, this will be the line separating Clackamas and Champooick Districts.

The division lines between these four Districts were changed, several times, by Acts of the Provisional Legislature.

June 26, 1844, the division line between Yamhill and Twality Districts was changed to be as follows: "Commencing in the middle of the Willamette River, at the mouth of Pudding River; thence in a direct course to the divide of the waters in Chehalem Valley; and thence due west to the Pacific Ocean." (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 87.)

December 19, 1845, tne division line between Yamhill and Twality Districts was again changed to be as follows: "Commencing in the middle of the main channel of the Willamette River, one mile below the Bute [Butteville]; thence in a direct course due west to the Pacific Ocean." (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, Page 36).

December 11, 1846, the division line between Yamhill and Twality Districts was again changed to be as follows: "Commencing at a point on the northwest bank of the Willamette River, opposite the mouth of Pudding River, and run thence in a northwest direction on the top of the main ridge dividing the waters of the Tuality River from the waters which flow into Chehalem Valley, and thence along on the dividing ridge near Jesse Cayton's, in a straight line to the top of the dividing ridge between the waters of the Rivers of Yamhill and Tuality, to the top of the Mountain between said rivers, thence west to the Pacific Ocean." (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 7).

December 19, 1845, tne dividing line between Champooick and Clackamas Districts was changed to be as follows: "Commencing one mile below the Bute [Butteville], in the middle of the main channel of the Willamette River, thence in a due east course to the summit of the Rocky Mountains." (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 36).

By the Report of the Legislative Committee of the Provisional Government under which the first four Districts were created it was uncertain as to whether any part of the Willamette River was included in either of these Districts. By the Act of December 19, 1845, the middle of the main channel of the Willamette River was made the dividing line between Twality and Clackamas Districts and between Champooick and Yamhill Districts. (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 36).

June 27, 1844, the Provisional Legislature passed an Act "that all those parts of any Counties heretofore organized which lie north of the Columbia river be and they are hereby stricken off respectively, and that the said river shall constitute the northern boundary of said Counties respectively." (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 74). This law, as printed, recites that it was passed June 27, 1854. The figure 5 is a misprint. That it was passed June 27, 1844, * s shown by the Journal of the Provisional Legislature. ("Oregon Archives," page 52). It is also shown by the title of an Act, passed December 24, 1844. The latter Act is entitled: "AN ACT Explanatory of an Act entitled 'An Act to amend the several Acts organizing Counties', passed June 27, 1844, making the Columbia River the northern line of Clatsop, Tuality and Clackamas Counties." Section 1 of this Act provides: "That Oregon shall consist of the following territory: Commencing at that point on the Pacific Ocean where the parallel of forty-two degrees of north latitude strikes the same, as agreed upon by the United States and New Mexico; thence north along the coast of said ocean, so as to include all the islands, bays and harbors contiguous thereto, to a point on said ocean where the parallel of fifty-four degrees and forty minutes of north latitude strikes the same; thence east along the last parallel, as agreed between the United States and Russia, to the summit of the main dividing ridge of the Rocky Mountains, dividing the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; thence southerly, following said main dividing ridge, to the said parallel of forty-two degrees north latitude; and thence west to the place of beginning" (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 72).

Twality District.

As originally created Twality District was described as:

"First district, to be called the Twality District, comprising all the country south of the northern boundary line of the United States, west to the Willamette, or Multnomah, River, north of the Yamhill River, and east of the Pacific Ocean." "Approved by the people July 5th, 1843." ("Oregon Archives," page 26).

This Indian name has been spelled in many ways. It is the name of a river, mostly now in Washington County, which flows into the west side of the Willamette River, about two miles above its falls at Oregon City. Indian names are few, as are all words in the languages of the different Indian tribes. The word apparently means sluggish and also restful, and, what is one meaning of the English word peaceful, as applied to a beautiful plain or scene. The Tualatin River is a very sluggish stream. Tualatin Plains, now in Washington County, is a beautiful country, in many places almost level, in other places slightly rolling, with many beautiful oak and other trees.

The name Twality, is spelled also Twalaty and Tuality in the laws and journals of the Provisional Legislature. In the Act of September 3, 1849, passed by the Territorial Legislature changing the name to Washington County, the name of the County is referred to as "'Faulitz' or 'Palatine' ". (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 54).

Nathaniel J. Wyeth, who came overland to Oregon in 1832 and in 1834, kept a Journal of his two expeditions. These were published by the Oregon Historical Society in 1899. In the "Journal" of his second expedition, page 25, under date of April 13, 1835, ne spells the name Fallatten. Commodore Charles Wilkes, U. S. N., who was in the Willamette Valley in 1841, on page 357 of Volume 4 of his "Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition," published in 1849, spells the name Faulitz. In other books on early Oregon the name is spelled in several ways: Fualitine, by L. W. Hastings, an immigrant of 1842, on page 40 of his book, "A New Description of Oregon and California," published in 1849; Fallatry, by Peter H. Burnett, an immigrant of 1843, m his letters to the New York Herald, written in 1844. A part of these letters is in an appendix of the "History of Oregon," by George Wilkes, published in 1845. (See page 101); Tualatin, on the map in "Ten Years in Oregon", written by Rev. Daniel Lee, a Methodist missionary of 1834, and Rev. J. H. Frost, a Methodist missionary of 1840, published in 1844; Fallatine, by Dr. Elijah White, a Methodist missionary of 1837, on page 240 of his book "Ten Years in Oregon", published in 1850; Twahtin, by J. Quinn Thornton, an immigrant of 1846, on page 292 of Volume 1 of his book "Oregon and California," published in 1849; an d Quality, in Joel Palmer's "Journal," published in 1847, pages 90 and 115.

Report No. 101 of the House of Representatives, 25th Congress, 3d Session, ordered to be printed February 16, 1839, is the Supplemental Report of the Committee on Foreign Affairs on the Territory of Oregon. Its appendix N is the Report of William A. Slacum to Hon. John Forsyth, Secretary of State, dated November 11, 1835. (Senate Document 18378, No. 24). On page 42 of this Supplemental Report No. 101, the name is given as that of a tribe of Indians and is spelled Fallatah. Slacum was in Oregon a part of December, 1836, all of January, and a part of February, 1837, on a secret mission from the Department of State. The name is now spelled Tualatin.

What was left of this County, after Clatsop County was created, January 15, 1855, was named Washington County by an Act of theTerritorial Legislature, passed September 3, 1849. (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 54). For present boundaries see Washington County.

Yamhill District.

As originally created Yamhill District was described as: "Second district, to be called the Yamhill District, embracing all the country west of the Willamette, or Multnomah, River and a supposed line running north and south from said river, south of the Yamhill River to the parallel of 42 north latitude, or the boundary line of the United States and California, and east of the Pacific Ocean." "Approved by the people, July 5th, 1843". ("Oregon Archives," page 26).

December 19, 1845, three days before Polk District was created, the Provisional Legislature changed the boundaries of Yamhill District so as to be as follows: "Commencing in the middle channel of the Willamette river, one mile below the Bute [Butteville]; thence a direct course due west to the Pacific Ocean; thence south along the coast of the Pacific ocean to a point due west of George Gray's house; thence due east to the middle channel of the Willamette river, leaving said George Gray's house in Yamhill district; thence down said channel to the place of beginning". (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, Pgee 36).

Although in this Act of December 19, 1845, as printed in the compilation of the laws of 1843-9, tne name of the owner of the house as therein specified is George Gray, this is undoubtedly an error and the name should be George Gay. The latter was a notable character in the history of early Oregon. George Gay was born in England in 18 10. He became a sailor. He left his ship at Monterey, California, in 1833, and became a trapper, with Ewing Young. He came to the Willamette Valley from California with Dr. W. J. Bailey, in 1835, and settled near Wheatland in the southeastern part of Yamhill County, as it now is, and near the present southern line of Yamhill County. In 1843 ne built the first brick house in Oregon. He became a wealthy man, for those early days, having herds of cattle and horses roaming over the southern part of Yamhill County and the northern part of Polk County. These facts I have obtained from a short biography of Gay written by Col. J. W. Nesmith, a noted Oregon Pioneer of 1843, an d who was, from 1861 to 1867, an United States Senator from Oregon. This biography is published at pages 88-90 of "Transactions of the Oregon Pioneer Association" for the year 1882. In this biography Col. Nesmith says of Gay: "His house was a general resort for travellers and immigrants in early days. He dispensed a rude but unbounded hospitality, to which all comers were welcome. I have known him to slaughter a bullock for the breakfast of his guests, the remnants of which were eaten for supper." Commodore Wilkes, in his "Narrative," Vol. 4, pages 357363, writes of George Gay. The latter entertained Wilkes, on his trip to the Willamette Valley, in June, 1841, and accompanied Wilkes to Oregon City.

The origin and meaning of the name Yamhill is somewhat uncertain. The Yamhill River runs through this County which is one of the most beautiful and fertile parts of Oregon. It flows into the Willamette River, on the west side, about twenty-five miles above Oregon City. The first mention of the name appears in Cones' "Journals" of Henry and Thompson, under date of January 23, 18 14, written above the portage at the falls of the Willamette River. After speaking of meeting a party of seven Indians it is said: "They were Yamhelas, who dwell in houses on Yellow River, a branch of the Willamette." (Vol. 2, page 812). Frances Fuller Victor, one of Oregon's best historians, in her book "All over Oregon and Washington", published in 1872, at page 195, says, of the name Yamhill: "The original name, let it here be stated, was Che-am-il—the Indian term for bald hills—and was applied first to the river at the falls of the Yamhill River, just above which was the ford, because these hills served as a landmark by which they easily found the ford". These bald hills are beautiful hills. In pioneer days, in the spring, they were covered with a luxuriant growth of grass. When the early pioneers came the name was sometimes pronounced as though spelled Yamil. As many of the early immigrants were from the southern states, in a jocular way, they called the name Yam Hill. This is the spelling used by Peter H. Burnett (Appendix of George Wilkes "History of Oregon," page 101). It is spelled Yam-Hill by Palmer, in his "Journal," pages 91, 92, 93, 1151 and 116.

Com. Charles Wilkes published, in 1849, a pamphlet entitled "Western America, including California and Oregon". This pamphlet is supplementary to his "Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition", in five volumes, published in 1849. In this pamphlet he quotes numerous excerpts, relating to the Oregon Indians, from the "Ethnological Remarks" made by Horatio Hale, the Philologist of the Exploring Expedition, Hale made a careful investigation of Oregon Indian tribes. In this pamphlet Wilkes makes the curious error of using the word "Yam" as the name of a range of hills in Yamhill County. In speaking of valleys adjacent to the Willamette Valley he says: "The principal one is called Faulitz Plains, and is divided from the Willamette by the Yam Hills. These are clothed to their very top with grass, and afford excellent pasturage." ("Western America," page 56). The same error appears in Wilkes' Narrative, Vol. 4, pages 356 and 357, where he says, under date of June 9, 1841: "We started for the Yam Hills, which divide the valleys of the Willamette and Faulitz .... These hills are clothed to the very top with grass . . . On our route through the Yam Hills, we passed many settlers' establishments". While Com. Wilkes"Narrative" is, in the main accurate, he, occasionally, was careless. He made the ridiculous error of calling Campement du Sable [Champoeg] Camp Maude du Sable. (Wilkes' "Narrative," pages 346 and 347).

Yamhill County is now bounded: on the north by Washington County; on the east by Washington County and the Willamette River, its common boundary with Marion County; on the south by Polk County and a small portion of Tillamook County; and on the west by Tillamook County. Its county seat is McMinnville.

Clackamas District.

As originally created Clackamas District was described as:

"Third district, to be called the Clackamas District, comprehending all the territory not included in the other three districts". "Approved by the people, July 5th, 1843". ("Oregon Archives," page 26). The other three districts were Twality, Yamhill, and Champooick, which see for descriptions.

Clackamas is an Indian name. It is first mentioned in Lewis and Clark's "J°u rna l s -" Under date of April 3, 1806 ("Original Journals", Dodd, Mead and Company edition (1904), Vol. 4, page 241), it is said that an old man gave the names of four nations residing on the "Multnomar" [Willamette] river." The "Journals" then set forth "The first is Clark-a-mus nation reside on a small river which takes its rise in Mount Jefferson and falls into the Moltnomar aboue 40 miles up. This nation is noumerous and inhabit 11 towns." The Oregon Indians have no "r" sound in their languages. In the Chinook jargon the word for rope is taken from the English word. It is pronounced "lope". But Indians often gave a very broad pronunciation to the letter "a" and, especially when using "cl", gave a clucking sound which, with an "a" following, gave to that letter a sound, to a stranger, very much like "r". Besides Lewis and Clark were not only intrepid explorers but they were also "fierce" spellers. Under date of April J } 1806, their "Journals" ("Original Journals", Vol. 4, page 254), after setting forth about a map made on the sand by an old Indian showing the Multnomah river, proceeds: "He also lais down the Clarkamos passing a high conical mountain near its mouth on the lower Side and heads in Mount Jefferson." Thus Lewis and Clark give the name Clarkamos, not only as the river, but of the tribe which lived near the river. On Clark's map, printed in 18 14, the name is spelled Clack-a-mus and Clackamus.

In Coues' Henry and Thompson's "Journals," Vol. 3, pages 810-81 1, under date of January 22, 1814, it is said: "It was dark before we saw the village on the S [present site of Oregon City] near a small but rapid river on our left, called the Clukemus, from a numerous tribe who dwell up it". It is also spelled in various ways in other early books on Oregon: Klackamus, in Hasting's "Description of Oregon and California," page 55; Clacamur, in George Wilkes' "History of Oregon", in the main work, page 44, and Klackamus, in the appendix, by Peter H. Burnett, page 100; Klackamus, in Com. Charles Wilkes' "Narrative", Vol. 4, pages 36 and 343; Klackamas, in Rev. Gustavus Hines' "Oregon", page 44; Clackamis in Joel Palmer's "Journal", pages 84 and 116; and Clatmus, page 2, House Report 213, 19th Congress, 1st Session, dated May 15, 1826.

Duflot de Mofras, an attache of the French Legation in Mexico, came to Oregon in 1841. He came ostensibly, at least, to study the country and to write a book. His work in two volumes was published in Paris in 1844. Its title is "Exploration du Territoire de Oregon, des Californie et de la Mer Vermeille, In Volume 2, page 335, he calls this tribe of Indians, Clakemas.

In a letter dated at Fort Vancouver, September 28, 1841, written by Rev. F. N. Blanchet, afterwards Catholic Archbishop of the Diocese of Oregon City, the name is spelled Flackamar ("Letters and Sketches", by Rev. P. J. De Smet, S. J., page 233, published in 1843). On page 43 of the preface to "Notice sur le Territoire et sur la Mission de rOregon" (1847), tne name of Clackamas River is spelled Tlakemas.

Paul Kane, the artist, was in Oregon in 1846 and 1847. He returned to Toronto in October, 1848. His book "Wanderings of an Artist" was published in 1859. In January, 1847, ne made a visit to Oregon City. On page 196 of his book he writes of the river and the tribe and gives the name as Klackamuss.

Lieuts. Warre and Vavasour, of the British army, were at Fort Vancouver in 1845. In their "Census of the Indian Tribes," dated at Fort Vancouver, October 26, 1845, and "derived from the Trading Lists of the Hudson's Bay Company and best obtainable information," the name is spelled Clakamus, as printed in Martin's "Hudson Bay Territories" (1849), page 81, while in Prof. Joseph Schafer's copy of this "Census," in the March, 1909, Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, page 61, it is spelled Clackamas.

In Coues' edition of Lewis and Clark's "Expedition," Vol. 3, page 924, there is a foot-note relating to the name Clackamas, where it is said: "Preferably now Clackama, pi. Gackamas .... The Clackama is one of the best known Upper Chinookan tribes." That the name is Clackama and not Clackamas, seems to have been adopted by the United States Bureau of Ethnology. The name is given as Clackama in its "Hand Book of American Indians North of Mexico," Vol. 1, page 302. If the name be Clackama, then the final syllable, "mas," should be pronounced as the plural of "ma" and 1 not as though spelled "mass." It is true that writers of early reports, journals, and books on Oregon usually gave the name of the Indians of a tribe and not that of the tribe itself, so they are given in an English plural form, e. g.: Clatsops instead of Clatsop; Multnomahs, instead of Multnomah, etc. But the Indians did not form plurals of their names by adding a final "s". Camas is the Indian name of an edible root and is not a plural of cama, if there be such a word as cama. At least I never heard of it. It will be noted that Lewis and Clark, in their "Journals," say the name is that of the river as well as that of the tribe, as I have already shown by quotations from their "Journals." In their "Estimate of the Western Indians", giving names of tribes west of the Rocky Mountains and drawn up by Lewis and Clark during the winter of 1805-6, while they were at Fort Clatsop, the names of many tribes are given. On their return journey, they came into further contact with the tribes and learned more of those southward on the Willamette River. This information they added to the original draft of said "Estimate." This is shown in an editorial note by Reuben Gold Thwaites in the "Original Journals," Volume 6, pages 113 and 114. The complete "Estimate" is set forth in Volume 6, pages 1 14-120. In this "Estimate" the names of one hundred and thirteen tribes are given. Of these fourteen only are spelled with a final "s". Of the other ninety-nine, a few have a final "s", but used with an apostrophe. On page 118 of Volume 6, it is said:

"CLARK-A-MUS Nation reside on a large river of the Same name which heads in Mt. Jefferson and discharges itself into the Multnomah", etc.

In Coues' Henry and Thompson's "Journals," Vol. 2, pages 810-81 1, it is said, as I have already quoted, that the river is "called the Clukemus, from a numerous tribe who dwell up it".

So, notwithstanding the eminent authority of Elliott Coues and of the Bureau of Ethnology, I am of the opinion that the name is Clackamas and not Clackama.

Clackamas County is now bounded: on the north by Multnomah County; on the east by portions of Hood River and Wasco Counties; on the south by Marion County; on the west by Marion County, Pudding River, and portions of Yamhill and Washington Counties. Its county seat is now, and has been always, Oregon City, the original Capital of the Provisional Government and of Oregon Territory.

Champooick District.

Champooick District, as originally created was described as:

"Fourth district, to be called the Champooick District, and bounded on the north by a supposed line drawn from the mouth of the Anchiyoke [Pudding] River, running due east to the Rocky Mountains, west by the Willamette, or Multnomah River, and a supposed line running due south from said river to the parallel of 42 °, north latitude; south by the boundary line of the United States and California, and east by the summit of the Rocky Mountains." "Approved by the people, July 5th, 1843." ("Oregon Archives," page 26).

By an Act of the Provisional Legislature, approved December 28, 1847, a new southern boundary of Champooick County was established. The Act provides: "That the southern boundary of Champoeg County be located in the following manner: Commencing in the middle of the channel of the Willamette River, opposite the mouth of the Santiam River, thence up said River to the North Fork; thence up said Fork to the Cascade Mountains; thence due east to the summit of the Rocky Mountains." (General and Special Laws of 18439, pages 55 and 56). This Act also created Linn County, making the latter all of the original Champooick District south of said new southern boundary of Champooick County and east of Benton County.

While the name was sometimes spelled Champooick and Champoick in early Oregon days, it is usually spelled Champoeg in the Journals of the Provisional Legislature. The name is now spelled Champoeg. It is now the name of a small town in Marion County, on the east bank of the Willamette River. Its main point of interest is that it is the place where the Provisional Government was started. The first mission in Oregon was the Methodist mission, established in 1834, by Revs. Jason Lee and Daniel Lee, at a place about ten miles north of Salem, and a few miles south of Champoeg. In "Ten Years in Oregon," by Revs. Daniel Lee and J. H. Frost, at page 126, Lee says, of his first trip up the Willamette River: "We struck the river at the lower point of the settlement [French-Canadian] called Campment du Sable, that is, 'Sandy Encampment.' The Indian name is Chumpoeg." It is spelled Shampoic in Palmer's "Journal," pages 96 and 116, and Champooing in Wilkes' "Narrative," Vol. 4, pages 347, 349 and 360.

Willard H. Rees, an Oregon pioneer of 1844, who located near the Town of Champoeg, in the Annual Address before the Oregon Pioneer Association, June 17, 1879, said: "Champoeg was the principal Indian village between Chemeketa [Salem] and Willamette Falls [Oregon City] and the home of the Champoeg chieftains from time immemorial." ("Transactions of the Oregon Pioneer Association" for 1879, P a £ e 25).

In a letter written by Rev. P. J. De Smet, S. J., to Bishop F. N. Blanchet, dated at St. Francis Xavier, Willamette [St. Paul], Oregon, June 20, 1845, Father De Smet gives the name of the village as Champois. ("Oregon Missions," page 97). On a map attached as a part of the book "L'Oregon et les Cotes de l'Ocean Pacific du Nord," by M. Fedix, and published at Paris in 1846, the name is spelled Champoing.

December 1 ith of this year, I had an interview with Francois Xavier Matthieu, the noted Oregon Pioneer, who is now staying in Portland, with his son. Mr. Matthieu was born April 2, 1818, in Terrebonne, Canada. In 1838 he came to the United States, escaping from Canada, where he had taken part in what is called the Canadian Rebellion of 1837-8. He was engaged as a fur trader by the America Fur Company, and lived in the Indian country until, at Fort Laramie, he joined the Oregon immigration of 1842. He settled about three miles east of Champoeg. He became well acquainted with Dr. W. J. Bailey. Dr. Bailey was an Englishman of birth, breeding, and education, and was an educated physician and a skillful surgeon, but, by association with wild companions in London, he became almost a dipsomaniac. In an endeavor to reform he came to America with his mother and three sisters. Without their knowledge he shipped as a common sailor on a vessel bound for California. On reaching California he deserted and stayed in different places there, for several years, until he came to Oregon, overland, in 1835. His party of eight was attacked by the Indians, two of the party were killed, two mortally wounded, and Bailey, badly wounded, arrived at the Methodist mission not far from Champoeg. He settled at Champoeg, where he reformed, married Miss Margaret Smith, one of the Methodist missionaries, and resumed the practice of his profession and became a man of affairs. In May, 1844, he was elected one of the Executive Committee to frame a Constitution and laws for a provisional government, in place of Rev. F. N. Blanchet, who declined to serve. In May, 1844, he was elected one of the Executive Committee of three, of the Provisional Government. He was a member of the last Provisional Legislature. He died February 5, 1876, at Champoeg.

Dr. Bailey, as a man of education, inquired into the origin of Indian names. From Michel La Framboise, a well known employe of the Hudson's Bay Company, stationed at Chamr poeg, Dr. Bailey learned that the name of the place was derived from the Indian word Champoo or Shampoo, the Indian name of a weed growing on the west side of the Willamette River, opposite Champoeg. This information Dr. Bailey gave to Mr. Matthieu. While this is hearsay, based on hearsay, I believe it is true. Spelling the name Champooick is more in accordance with the origin of its name and its pronunciation by the Indians than Champoeg. It is difficult or impossible, with Roman letters, to spell Indian names as pronounced by the Indians. The use of "C" instead of "S" as the initial letter of the name was due to the French influence in the spelling of names and other words e. g., Willamette. Willamette is an Indian name, with French spelling and English pronunciation. French was largely used by the Hudson's Bay officers and employees, including voyageurs, the latter speaking French almost exclusively, as they were French-Canadians.

Champoeg is the most convenient natural place near French Prairie, to reach the Willamette River. It is a sandy place, on a prairie which extends to the river, and is above the ordinary freshets of the river. This led to its selection as a camping place by the Indians, and as a convenient point for them to cross the river. Its advantages also led to its selection by Dr. John McLoughlin as the site of a Hudson's Bay Company warehouse. It enabled the former Canadian-French employes of that Company, whom he had induced to settle at French Prairie, to deliver their wheat to the Company there. They could go to Champoeg with their heavy wooden carts, having log wheels, without cutting a road through a heavy belt of timber and digging out the stumps.

Mr. Matthieu, although nearly ninety-two years old, and almost blind, is still in good bodily health for a man of his age and retains his mental faculties, including a remarkable and accurate memory.

I trust I may be pardoned the digression in giving Mr. Matthieu's account of the voting on the formation of the Provisional Government, May 2, 1843. In my interview I asked him to tell me about the matter. He told in substance the following facts: When the result of the viva voce vote was uncertain, and a division was called for, Joseph Meek called on all who desired to establish a provisional government to line up with him. There were fifty persons all Americans [citizens of the United States], including Meek, standing for the affirmative. There were fifty-one standing for the negative, all "Hudson's Bay men", as Mr. Matthieu called them, i. e. French-Canadians, almost all former employes of the Hudson's Bay Company, who had settled in the Willamette Valley, Mr. Matthieu not being of the latter class. He stood at first with the Hudson's Bay men in an endeavor to have one or more of them join with the Americans in the vote. Mr. Matthieu said that his experience with British rule in Canada had made him in favor of government by the United States. Mr. Matthieu, during the winter of 1842-3, had lived with Etienne Lucier at the latter' s place on French Prairie. Lucier was the first settler in the Willamette Valley, having located on French Prairie about the year 1829. During the winter Matthieu had had many conversations on the subject with Lucier. When the other French-Canadians refused to join the Americans, Matthieu went to the American line-up and Lucier followed him and thus the vote was made fifty-two for the establishment of the Provisional Government to fifty against.

After I wrote out this interview I read it to Mr. Matthieu, when he made a few corrections, and as thus corrected I here set it forth.

Champooick County as existing September 3, 1849, was named Marion County by an Act of that day, passed by the Territorial Legislature. (Local Laws of 1 850-1, page 53). For present boundaries see Marion County.

Clatsop District.

Clatsop District was created by the Provisional Legislature by an Act passed June 22, 1844. It comprised parts of the northern and western portions of Twality District. After a long and careful search I have not found the original Act creating this County. I found, in the Journal of the Provisional Legislature, under date of June 22, 1844, that the Act creating Clatsop District was passed that day. ("Oregon Archives," page 43). December 19, 1845, there was approved an Act of the Provisional Legislature defining the line dividing Clatsop and Twality Districts. This Act provides: "That the line dividing Clatsop and Tuality districts shall commence in the middle of the main channel of the Columbia river, at Oak Point mountain on said river; thence south to a supposed line dividing Yamhill and Tuality districts; thence west along said line to the Pacific Ocean; thence north along said line to the mouth of the Columbia river; thence up the middle of the main channel to the place of beginning." (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, Page 36.)

The Act of June 27, 1844, which I have already quoted from, cutting off all parts of Districts north of the Columbia River, passed five days after the Act creating Clatsop District, so it probably became necessary to again define its boundaries. By the Act of December 19, 1845, Clatsop District became all of the northern portion of Twality District, south of the Columbia River, and all of the western portion of Twality District, including what is now Tillamook County.

Its name is that of a small Indian tribe whose habitat was south of the mouth of the Columbia River and near the adjacent shore of the Pacific Ocean. This tribe is mentioned many times in the Journals of Lewis and Clark. Their winter quarters, on Lewis and Clark River, in 1805-6, was named Fort Clatsop by Lewis and Clark.

In the "Original Journals" of Lewis and Clark it is spelled in several ways: Clatsop, Vol. 3, pages 241, 258, 311, 312, 313, 317 and numerous other places; Clat-sop, Vol. 3, pages 258, 282; Vol. 4, page 278; Vol. 6, page 117; Clap-sott, Vol. 3, page 238; Clot-sop, Vol. 3, pages 244, 294.

Patrick Gass was a sergeant in the Lewis and Clark expedition. He kept a Journal, which was published in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1807. It was the first publication of an authoritative book concerning the expedition. The first edition of the "History" of the Lewis and Clark expedition was published in Philadelphia in 1814. All prior books, purporting to be by them are spurious. I have a copy of the Gass "Journal" re-printed in London in 1808. I quote from the latter volume. On page 244, under date of November 23, 1805, he spells the name Clat-sop. He spells it Clatsop on pages 257, 261, 274 and 276.

In Coues' Henry and Thompson's "Journals" the name is spelled Clatsop, only, in numerous places in volume 2 from pages 756 to 815, inclusive.

Gabriel Franchere, a Canadian-Frenchman, was one of the clerks of the Astor expedition which came around Cape Horn on the ship Tonquin and founded Astoria, April 12, 181 1. He declined to enter into the employ of the Northwest Company when the Astor establishment was treacherously sold to the latter Company in October, 1813, by Duncan McDougal, a partner of John Jacob Astor. Franchere returned overland to Montreal in 1814, arriving there September first. He kept a private Journal which was written in French. This "Journal" was published in French, at Montreal, in 1820. Its title is "Relation d'un Voyage a la Cote du Nord-Ouest de 1' Amerique Septentrionable". On page 86 of this book the name of this Indian tribe is spelled Clatsoppe.

The name is spelled in several ways in early books and letters relating to Oregon: Clatsop, by Alexander Ross, who came to Astoria with the original Astor expedition, in 181 1, in his book "Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River" (1849), Page 87; Clatsop, by Ross Cox, who came to Astoria in 181 2 on the Beaver, in his book "Adventures on the Columbia River" (1831), page 116; Clatsop, in Wyeth's "Journal" of his first expedition, page 177; Klatsap, in Townsend's "Narrative," page 175; Clatsap, by Sir Edward Belcher, whose expedition visited the Columbia River in 1839, in his "Narrative" (1843), Page 307; Clatsop in Com. Wilkes' "Narrative," Vol. 4, pages 322; in Gustavus Hines' "Oregon," page 195; and in Farnham's "Travels" (1843), Page 2 73- I* 1 Rev. P. J. Be Smet's "Letters and Sketches" (1843), in a letter dated September 28, 1841, he spells the name Klatraps, page 231, but in a letter dated August 15, 1842, he spells it Classop, page 220. In Dunn's "History of the Oregon Territory" (second edition, 1843), Page I][ 4> the name is spelled Clotsop. Dunn came to Oregon in 1830 from England as an employe of the Hudson's Bay Company. He stayed with the Company for eight years, when he returned to England. For some time he was in charge of Fort George, now Astoria. The first edition of his book was published in London in 1844.

I have a very rare book, printed in French, published in Brussels, in 1847, entitled "Notice sur le Territoire et sur la Mission de l'Oregon." It contains 180 pages, of which 65 are taken up by a preface, evidently written by a Catholic priest, living in Oregon, and 105 pages made up of copies of letters by Sisters of Notre D!ame de Namur, written in the years 1844-6, excepting one short letter written by Rev. Modeste Demers. January 9, 1844, Rev. P. J. De Smet, S. J., left Belgium on the Bark LTndefatigable for Oregon with four Catholic priests, a lay brother, and six Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur, all missionaries to Oregon. They arrived at Astoria July 31, 1844. October 19, 1844, these sisters opened a school for girls in a house built for that purpose at St. Paul on the French Prairie, between Salem and Champoeg in Marion County. In a letter dated at Sainte-Mariede-Wallamette (the name of their mission school at St. Paul), November 15, 1844, written to Mother Constantine by Sister Loyola, telling of their arrival and the establishment of their school, and printed in this book, she writes that at Astoria the Chief of the Clapsapes brought them some salmon, and she also writes of the Indians there as Clapsapes (page 106). In the preface of this book, page 33, the name of the Indians at Astoria is spelled Tlatsaps.

Solomon Howard Smith, came to Oregon as one of Nathaniel J. Wyeth's party, in 1832, and settled on Clatsop Plains. In his biography, published in the "Transactions of the Oregon Pioneer Association" for 1887, page 85, the name is spelled Tschlahtsoptschs. As Smith's wife was Celiast, daughter of Kobaway, the Chief of that tribe, this spelling undoubtedly gives the name as nearly correctly as it can be spelled.

Clatsop County is now bounded: on the north by the Columbia River; on the east by Columbia County; on the south by Tillamook County; and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Its county seat is now, and has been always, Astoria.

Polk District or County.

Polk District was created December 22, 1845, by the Provisional Legislature. (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 38). It comprised all that portion of the original Yamhill District, south of the south line of the latter District, as established by the Act of December 19, 1845, t0 tne California line. Before Benton County was created, December 23, 1847, tne south line of Polk County had been re-established, presumably at or near its present location. After a careful search I have been unable to find any description of the latter south line, in the "Oregon Archives," in the General and Special Laws of 1843-9, or elsewhere.

This County is named for James K. Polk, then President of the United States.

Col. J. W. Nesmith, in the "Occasional Address," delivered by him, before the Oregon Pioneer Association, June 15, 1875, told of being a member of the Provisional Legislature in 1847, °f which Dr. Robert Newell was the presiding officer, called "The Speaker". Col. Nesmith said he was not then well learned in parliamentary law, but he found a copy of Jefferson's "Manual," which he had never heard of before, but he studied it and learned there was such a thing in parliamentary usage as "the previous question." The Provisional Legislature consisted of one house. It held its meetings in the old Methodist Church at Oregon City. Near the Church Barton Lee had constructed a ten-pin alley, which was frequented by members of the legislature, for various purposes "including refreshment from their legislative toils". Col. Nesmith then said:

"I had a bill then pending to cut off the southern end of Yamhill, [County] and to establish Polk County, which measure had violent opposition in the body. One morning while most of the opponents of my bill were amusing themselves at 'horse billiards' in Lee's ten-pin alley, I called up my bill, and, after making the best argument I could in its favor, I concluded with: 'and now, Mr. Speaker, upon this bill I move the previous question'. Newell looked confused, and I was satisfied that he had no conception of what I meant; but he rallied, and, looking wise and severe (I have since seen presiding officers in Washington do the same thing), said: 'Sit down, sir! Resume your seat! Do you intend to trifle with the Chair! when you know that we passed the previous question two weeks ago? It was the first thing we done!' I got a vote, however, before the return of the 'horse billiard' players, and Polk County has a legal existence today, notwithstanding the adverse ruling upon a question of parliamentary usage." ("Transactions of Oregon Pioneer Association" for 1875, page 59).

Col. Nesmith was in error in saying the bill passed was for the establishment of Polk County. That bill passed the Provisional Legislature December 19, 1845, ("Oregon Archives," page 151) and was approved by Governor George Abernethy December 22, 1845, (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 38) . Col. Nesmith was not a member of the Provisional Legislature until 1847. That session was held at Oregon City, beginning December 7, 1847. Col. Nesmith was a member from Polk County. ("Oregon Archives," page 221). The bill he referred to must have been the bill, which I have been unable to find, entitled "An Act to define the boundaries of Polk County" which was passed by the Provisional Legislature December 20, 1847 ("Oregon Archives," page 237).

Polk County is now bounded: on the north by Yamhill County; on the east by the Willamette River, its common boundary with Marion County; on the south by Benton County, and a small portion of Lincoln County; and on the west by a portion of Lincoln County and a small portion of Tillamook County. Its county seat is Dallas.

As I have said, by an Act of the Provisional Legislature, approved Devember 22, 1845, the name District was changed to County. Thereafter all former Districts were called Counties. This Act was approved the same day the Act creating Polk District was approved.

Benton County.

Benton County was created December 23, 1847, by the Provisional Legislature. (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 50.) It comprised the southern portion of the original Yamhill District out of which Polk District had been created. Benton County, at the time of its creation, was all of the original Polk District from the re-established southern line of Polk County to the California north line. Prior to the creation of Umpqua County, January 24, 1851, a new southern line of Benton County was established by an Act of the Territorial Legislature passed January 15, 185 1. The description of this line in Section 1 of said Act is as follows:

"The southern boundary of Benton [County] shall be located as follows: commencing in the middle of the channel of the Wallamet River, at a point where a line, running west, will pass three miles south of the ford on Long Tom [River] (near Roland Hinton's field), and running due west to the Pacific Ocean." (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 34).

It is named for Senator Thomas H. Benton, of Missouri, who, for many years, had been a strong advocate for Oregon.

Benton County is now bounded: on the north by Polk County; on the east by the Willamette River, its common boundary with Linn County; on the south by Lane County; and on the west by Lincoln County. Its county seat is Corvallis, originally named Marysville.

Linn County.

Linn County was created December 28, 1847, by the Provisional Legislature. (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 55). It comprised all that portion of the original Champooick District south of a line commencing in the middle of the channel of the Willamette River, opposite the mouth of the Santiam River, thence up the latter river to its north fork, thence up said north fork to the Cascade Mountains, thence due east to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. Its original southern boundary was a part of what are now the California and Nevada north lines.

By an Act of the Territorial Legislature, passed January 4, 185 1, a new southern line of Linn County was established. The description of this line in Section 1 of said Act is as follows:

"The south line of Linn County shall commence as follows: Commencing at west point, lying south of William, Vaughn's claim, and running a westerly course to a point of the Wallamet River, at a distance of eight miles below Jacob Spoors', [Spore's], then at the place of beginning, due east to the Rocky Mountains." (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 33).

It is named for Senator Lewis F. Linn, of Missouri, a great friend of Oregon, and the originator of the Oregon donation land law.

Linn County is now bounded: on the north by the Santiam River and Marion County; on the east by Crook County; on the south by Lane County; and on the west by the Willamette River, its common boundary with Benton County. Its county seat is Albany.

Washington County.

The name of Twality County was changed to Washington by the first Territorial Legislature by an Act passed September 3, 1849. ^ was on ly after a long and tedious search that I was able to find this Act. After going through, page by page, the Journals of the House of Representatives and Council for the session of the Legislature begun and held at Oregon City, July 16, 1849, an d also the compilation of the laws of that session, I was unable to find that this Act passed both Houses, or to find the Act itself. I did find that the Act had passed the Council. The Local Laws for the session of 1850-1 has no index and I went through this book, page by page, and was rewarded by finding on pages 53 and 54 the three Acts, each passed by the Territorial Legislature September 3, 1849, changing the names of the Counties of Twality, Champooick and Vancouver. One of said Acts provides: "That the name of the county commonly called 'Faulitz' o- 'Falatine' be and the same is changed to Washington." (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 54).

Of course this County is named for George Washington. Washington County is now bounded: on the north by Columbia County; on the east by Multnomah County and portions of Columbia and Clackamas Counties; on the south by Yamhill County, a small portion of Clackamas County, and a very small portion of Tillamook County; and on the west by Tillamook County. Its county seat is Hillsboro.

Hillsboro is situated on the Donation Land Claim of David Hill, and was named for him. David Hill was a member of the Executive Committee of three of the Provisional Government elected by the people on July 5, 1843, to serve one year, the other two being Alanson Beers and Joseph Gale, who were practically the first governors of Oregon. The name of the town has been Hillsboro ever since it was platted. Prior to the time it was platted it was apparently called Columbus. In a letter now in the possession of the Oregon Historical Society, dated January 6, 1850, written by David Hill to S. R. Thurston, then delegate to Congress from Oregon, Mr. Hill wrote: "The name of our county has been changed to Washington and the county seat is located at Columbus, the northeast corner of my claim."


Marion County.

September 3, 1849, the Territorial Legislature changed the name of Champooick County (which had come to be spelled "Champoeg") to Marion. The Act provides:

"That the name of the County of Champoeg be, and the same is hereby changed to Marion". (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 53). This County then comprised all that part of Oregon bounded on the north by Clackamas County, on the east by the Rocky Mountains, on the south by Linn County, and on the west by the Willamette River.

This change of name was made in honor of General Francis Marion of the American Revolutionary war. The WeemsHorry life of Marion was then largely read in Oregon and other frontier settlements. The praise of Marion in this book greatly appealed to these people.

Marion County is now bounded: on the north by Clackamas County and the Willamette River, the latter being its common northern boundary with Yamhill County; on the east by portions of Crook and Wasco counties; on the south by Linn County; and on the west by the Willamette River, its common boundary with Polk and Yamhill Counties. Its county seat is Salem, the capital of the State.


Lane County.

Lane County was created January 28, 1851, by the Territorial Legislature. (Local Laws of 1 850-1, page 32). It comprised "all that portion of Oregon Territory lying south of Linn County and south of so much of Benton County as is east of Umpqua County". Its eastern boundary, presumably, was the Rocky Mountains. December 22, 1853, the Territorial Legislature passed an Act to define the southern boundary of Lane County. It is there defined as follows: "Commencing on the Pacific Coast, at the mouth of the Siuselaw, [River] on south bank, thence following up the south bank of said stream, to a point fifteen miles west of the main traveled road, known by the name of the Applegate road, thence southerly to the summitt of the Calapooya mountains, thence eastward, along the summit of said mountains to the summit of the Cascade range." (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 13).

Lane County is named for Joseph Lane, the first Territorial Governor of Oregon, who had been a distinguished Brigadier-General in the Mexican war. He was a Territorial Delegate to Congress from Oregon, and one of its first United States Senators. He was a candidate for Vice-President, with John C. Breckenridge, for President, in 1860. He also took a prominent part, and was the head of the Oregon Volunteer forces in the Rogue River Indian war of 1853.

Lane County is now bounded: on the north by Linn, Benton and Lincoln Counties; on the east by portions of Crook and Klamath Counties; on the south by Douglas County; and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Its county seat is Eugene.


Douglas County.

January 24, 1851, the Territorial Legislature created Umpqua County. (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 33). Umpqua is the name of a river which flowed through that county and also of an Indian tribe, whose habitat was near that river. It comprised: "All that portion of Oregon Territory lying within the following boundaries: Beginning at the southwest corner of Benton County, and running due east along the south line of Benton County to the dividing ridge of the Calapooiah mountains, thence along the ridge of the said Calapooiah mountains, to the source of the main fork of the Calapooiah creek, thence down said creek to its mouth, thence due west to History of the Counties of Oregon 35 the Pacific ocean, and thence along the Coast to the place of beginning". Douglas County was created January 7, 1852, by the Ter- ritorial Legislature, out of the eastern portion of Umpqua County. (Local Laws of 185 1-2, page 18). It comprised all that portion of Umpqua County lying east of the Coast Range. A portion of Umpqua County was given to Coos County when the latter was created, December 22, 1853. October i6> 1862, what was left of Umpqua County was added to Douglas County (General Laws of 1862, page 59) and Umpqua County ceased to exist. Douglas County is named for the distinguished Stephen A. Douglas. Douglas County is now bounded: on the north by Lane County; on the east by Klamath County; on the south by Jackson and Josephine Counties ; and on the west by Coos County and the Pacific Ocean. Its county seat is Roseburg. Jackson County. Jackson County was created January 12, 1852, by the Ter- ritorial Legislature. (Local Laws of 1851-2, page 19). It comprised all of Oregon south of Umpqua County to the California line and west of the Cascade Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. It is named for the great Andrew Jackson. Jackson County is now bounded: on the north by Douglas County ; on the east by Klamath County ; on the south by the State of California ; and on the west by Josephine County. Its county seat is Jacksonville. On or near the common boundary line of Jackson and Klamath Counties, is situated the beautiful snow-covered mountain named Mount McLoughlin. It was named for Dr. John McLoughlin, by early residents of Oregon prior to the year 1838. It is so designated on a number of early maps of Oregon. Its name was officially declared to be Mount 36 Frederick V. Holman McLoughlin by House Concurrent Resolution No. 27, which passed both Houses of the Oregon Legislature in February, 1905 (House Journal, page 916; Senate Journal, page 789). This is the mountain called "Mount Pitt" by the ignorant. Tillamook County. Tillamook County was created December 15, 1853, by the Territorial Legislature. (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 6). It comprised parts of the western portions of Yamhill and Clatsop Counties and, possibly, of Polk County. As an instance of how loosely the boundary lines of counties were described in Acts of the Legislature, in early days, the following is the description of the boundaries of Tillamook County as given in the legislative Act creating that County : "All that portion of Yamhill and Clatsop Counties, embraced within the following boundaries, towit : Commencing at a range of hills near the Pacific ocean, north of the Nehalem river, known as Saddle mountain, thence east following the summit of said range of hills to the summit of the coast range of mountains, thence south following the summit of said coast range of mountains, to the southern boundary of Polk County, thence due west to the Pacific ocean, thence along the sea shore to the place of beginning". Possibly instead of the southern, the northern boundary of Polk County was intended, for the latter is the southern boundary of Yamhill County, and Polk County is not other- wise mentioned as having a portion of it included in Tillamook County. Its name is derived from a small tribe of Indians, whose habitat was near and south of Tillamook Head. In the "Orig- inal Journals" of Lewis and Clark the name is spelled Kilamox and Killamuck, Vol. 4, pages 12, 49, and 183 ; Vol. 6, pages 71 and 117. In Patrick Gass' "Journal," (London edition, 1808), page 260, he spells it Callemeux and, page 274, Cal-a^-mex. In Cones' Henry and Thompson's* "Journals," Vol. 2, page 858, History of the Counties of Oregon 37 it is spelled Callemex. In other early books on Oregon it is spelled in different ways: Killimux, in Ross' "Adventures," page 87; Kallamook, in Slacum's "Report," page 42, House Rep. 101, 25th Congress, 3d. Session; Killemook, in Town- send's "Narrative," page 175; Kilemooh, in Lee and Frost's "Ten Years in Oregon," page 307; Killamuck, in Hastings' "Description," page 60; Killamook, in Warre and Vavasour's "Census" as printed in Martin's "Hudson's Bay Territories"; and Kilamook, as printed in Schafer's article in Oregon His- torical Quarterly, March, 1909, page 61 ; Killimous, in Duflot de Mofras' "Exploration," Vol. 2, page 335 ; Kilamook, in Pal- mer's "Journal," page 105 ; and Killamuhe, in Wilkes' "West- ern America", page 88, quoting from Hale. In Hall J. Kelley's book or pamphlet of eighty pages, "A Geographical Sketch of that part of North American called Oregon", published in 1830, on page 40, it is said: "Killamuck river is one hundred yards wide, has no falls, and no difficult rapids. It opens into Killamuck bay, ten miles South of the creek of the same name, and forms a communication, for a considerable Indian trade, with the Multnomah valley; there being a short portage from the head of this river to the Multnomah". In House Report 101, ordered to> be printed February 16, 1839, is bound a finely engraved map, showing what is called the "Territory of Oregon". It was "compiled in United States Bureau of Topographical Engineers from the latest authori- ties under the direction of Col. J. J. Abert by Wash. Hood, 1838". On this map the name of Tillamook River is spelled Killimoux. On this map the Rocky Mountains are called "Rocky or Oregon" Mountains. , Lieut. Neil M. Howison, U. S. N., came to Oregon in July, 1846, in command of the United States Naval schooner Shark. October 10, 1846, his vessel was wrecked, and became a total loss, on South Spit, near the Columbia River bar. A portion of the hull, with three carronades attached to it, was found by Midshipman Simes on the beach below Tillamook Head. He 38 Frederick V. Holman succeeded in getting one of these carronades ashore above high-water mark. From this circumstance that beach is still called "Cannon Beach". In his Report, dated February I, 1847, House Miscellaneous Report No. 29, 30th Congress, 1st Session, ordered to be printed February 28, 1848, Lieut. Howi- son mentions Tillamook Head as "Killimuk's Head". A. N. Armstrong, for several years a government surveyor in Oregon, published a book entitled "Oregon", in 1857. In this book, page 74, he calls the bay, Tillamook. On page 101 he calls the Indians "Tillamooks (or Killamooks)". These are the earliest mentions I have found in early books on Oregon of the name Tillamook. I have been unable to ascertain when the name was changed to begin with a "T" instead of a "K". Judging from the date of books, mentioning the name, it was about or at the time the County was created. Tillamook County is now bounded : on the north by Clatsop County ; on the east by Washington and Yamhill Counties, and by a small portion of Columbia County ; on the south by Lin- coln County; and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Its county seat is Tillamook. Coos County. Coos County was created December 22, 1853, by the Ter- ritorial Legislature. (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 13). It comprised parts of the western portions of Umpqua and Jack- son Counties, and south of the Umpqua River. Its western boundary was the Pacific Ocean. Its name is derived from a tribe of Indians of the Kusan family, whose principal habitat was at what is now called Coos Bay, in that County. The name of the tribe and of the Bay was the same. In Lewis and Clark's "Journals" the name is spelled Cook-koo-oose, ("Original Journals," Vol. 6, page 117). This name they obtained from the Clatsop Indians. In Slacum's Report (1837) he gives the name of Coos River as Cowis. In Wilkes' "Western America," page 73, he spells History of the Counties of Oregon 39 the name of the river Cowes, and on page 101, quoting from Hale, he called the Indians Kaus and says they are "on a small river called by their name, between the Umpqua and Klamet" [Rivers]. In Armstrong's "Oregon/' pages 68-70, he says the name of the Bay is Kowes, but that it is usually written Coose, and he quotes from a letter by C. Clark, dated Empire City, April 23, 1855, in which the name of the Bay is spelled Coose. On page 116 he writes of the "Kouse Indians." Coos County is now bounded : on the north and east by Douglas County; on the south by Curry County; and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Its county seat is Coquille. Wasco County. Wasco County was created January 11, 1854, by the Terri- torial Legislature. (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 26). It comprised all of Eastern Oregon, that is, all that part of Oregon Territory east of the Cascade Mountains, from the Columbia River to the north lines of California and Nevada. It is the name of a small tribe of Indians, who lived at a place which is now Dalles City, but colloquially called "The Dalles," although it is several miles from them. This tribe seems to have had more of a local habitation than a name. The name is not mentioned by Lewis and Clark, nor by Henry, nor Thompson, nor by many of the authors of early books on Oregon. This is probably because these Indians were few in number, and a miserable lot. Most of the early travellers passed by The Dalles in the fishing season when sometimes thousands of Indians, of various tribes, were congregated along the river, from the falls of the Columbia at Celilo, to a point where the Wasco Indians lived. The latter were there- fore overlooked as a tribe. In Com. Charles Wilkes' "Narra- tive," under date of July 1, 1841 (Vol. 4, page 382), he says of these Indians, without giving their name : "There are only a few Indians residing near the mission during the winter, and 40 Frederick V. Holman these are a very miserable set, who live in holes in the ground, not unlike a clay oven, in order to keep warm. They are too lazy to cut wood for their fires." Rev. Daniel Lee says in his book, "Ten Years in Oregon," that he and Rev. H. K. W. Perkins went to The Dalles in March, 1838, to establish a mission there. He made his home there for more than two years. While he gives the names of other Indian tribes, he refers to the local Indians at the mis- sion only as "the Dalls Indians." Dr. Elijah White, on page 192 of his book, "Ten Years in Oregon," says that on Decem- ber 25, 1843, ne reached Wascopum, meaning the Methodist mission at The Dalles. Rev. Gustavus Hines in his book, "Oregon," says of these Indians, under date of May 5, 1843 (page 159) : "They are known by the name of the Wasco Indians, and they call their country round the Dalls, Wasco- pam," but on page 143 he calls them the Wascopam, Indians, and, on page 151, he says they belong to the Wasco pam tribe. De Saint- Amant, an Envoy of the French Government, made a trip to Oregon in 185 1-2. His book, "Voyages en Californie et dans Oregon," was published in Paris in 1854. On page 241, in enumerating Indian tribes east of the Cas- cade Mountains, he mentions the Wascos, and, on page 282, he writes of arriving at the mission of the Wascos. In 1852 there was published at Portland by S. J. McCor- mick an anonymous dictionary of the Chinook jargon. A copy of the second edition, published in 1853, is in the pos- session of the Oregon Historical Society. On page 14, in an enumeration of Indians the Wascoes are mentioned. In Arm- strong's "Oregon," page in, he writes of these Indians as the Dalles tribe. Elizabeth Laughlin Lord, wife of Wentworth Lord, Esq., of Dalles City, wrote a very interesting book entitled "Reminiscences of Eastern Oregon." It was published in Portland in 1903. She came to what is now Dalles City with her father and mother in the immigration of 1850. The only place she mentions the name of the Wasco Indians is on page History of the Counties of Oregon 4i 142, where she says: "In June, 1855, a treaty was held out on Three Mile [Creek] by General Joel Palmer with the Wasco, Deschutes and John Day Indians." On page 16 of the preface to< "Notice sur le Territoire et sur la Mission de l'Oregon," what is now called The Dalles is called "les Grande Dalles ou Wascopom." Concerning the meaning of the word dalles, Rev. P. J. De Smet, S. J., in a letter to the Father Provincial, dated at St. Paul's Station, near Colville, May 29, 1846, wrote: "Dalle is an old French word, meaning a trough, and the name is given by the Canadian Voyageurs to all contracted running waters, hemmed in by walls of rock" (De Smet's "Oregon Missions," page 214). J. G. Swan in his "Three Years' Residence in Washington Territory" (1857), page 123, speaks of his visit to The Dalles and says that the word dalles is "a corruption of the French d'aller, a term, as I am informed, applied by the Canadian French to the raceway of a mill, which this part of the river resembles. The Dalles are rapids formed by the passage of the water between vast masses of rock." Wasco County is now bounded : on the north by the Colum- bia River; on the east by the Deschutes River, Sherman County, and John Day River, the latter being the boundary between Wasco County and Wheeler County ; on the south by Crook County; and on the west by Hood River County and portions of Clackamas and Marion Counties. Its county seat is Dalles City. Columbia County. Columbia County was created January 16, 1854, by the Ter- ritorial Legislature. (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 32). It comprised the northeast part of Washington [Twality] County as it was after Clatsop County had been created. It is named for the Columbia River, which is its eastern and northern boundary. Columbia County is now bounded: on the north and east by the Columbia River; on the south by Multnomah and 42 Frederick V. Holman Washington Counties ; and on the west by Clatsop County and a small portion of Tillamook County. Its county seat is St. Helens. Multnomah County. Multnomah County was created December 22, 1854, by the Territorial Legislature. (Special Laws of 1854-5, page 29). It comprises a part of the eastern portion of Washington County and a part of the northern portion of Clackamas County. It is the smallest, but the most populous and wealthy County in Oregon. Its name is the Indian name of the Willamette River from the falls, at Oregon City, to its mouth. It was also the name of a tribe of Indians whose principal habitat was at the upper end of Wappatoo (now Sauvie's) Island, near the mouth of the Columbia River. Multnomah was not the name of a Chief nor of any one Indian, but it may have been used as a nick- name. In the "Original Journals" of Lewis and Clark the name of the tribe and of the lower Willamette is spelled Mulk- nomau, Vol. 3, page 198; Mult-no-mah and Multnomah, Vol. 4, pages 221, 233, 242, and Vol. 6, page 116; Volume 4, page 241, the name is spelled Multnomar. It is also spelled in sev- eral ways in early books on Oregon : Multnaba, by Franchere in his "Relation," page 84, under date of May 6, 181 1; Molt- noma, by Ross in his "Adventures," page 87 ; Multonomah, by Wyeth, in the "Journal" of his first expedition, page 178, under date of November 29, 1832 ; Multnomah, by Townsend, in his "Narrative," page 175 ; Multnomah, by Parker in his "Jour- nal," page 141. On the same page, under date of October 17, 1835, Parker writes of the island, which he calls Wappatoo [Sauvie's], and says : "It was upon this island the Multnomah Indians formerly resided, but they have become, as a tribe, extinct." The name is also spelled : Multonomah, by Peter H. Burnett, Appendix of George Wilkes' "History of Oregon," page 98 ; and Multinoma, in Palmer's "Journal," page 87. Sir George Simpson, Governor-in-Chief of the Hudson's Bay History of the Counties of Oregon 43 Company, was at Fort Vancouver, in 1841, on his trip around the world. His book, "Narrative of a Journey Round the World," in two volumes, was published in 1847. On page 174 of Volume i, he gives the name Multonomah as being the name of the island now called Sauvie's. The name is spelled Multonomah in Slacum's "Report," (1835), and in Hall J. Kelley's "Memoir" (1839). In De Saint-Amant's "Voyages" he also spells the name Multonomah, and, on page 153, he gives it as the original name of the Willamette River. On pages 153, 368, and 372 he says it is the name of the island [now called Sauvie's Island]. On page 327 he writes of the Multonomah tribe of Indians. I have the Second Edition, published in Paris in 1863, of "Six Ans en Amerique, Californie et Oregon," a book written by Abbe L. Rossi, a Catholic Missionary. He left Brussels in July, 1856, and returned to the same place in November, 1862. In December, 1856, he arrived at Vancouver, Washington, from San Francisco. On page 59 he gives the name of Sau- vie's Island as Multonamah. The text of Coues' edition of the "History" of the Lewis and Clark Expedition is that of what is called the "Biddle edition" (sometimes called the "Paul Allen" edition). It was pub- lished in 1814, and is the first authentic history of the expedi- tion. The author of this book was Nicholas Biddle, whose work was edited by Paul Allen. In the preface of this edition Allen says that, in addition to the. original Journals of Lewis and Clark, they "were carefully perused in conjunction with Captain Clark himself, who was able, from his own recollec- tion of the journey ... to supply a great mass of ex- planations." The following excerpts are taken from this edition, but they do not appear in this exact form, although to the same effect, in what I have called, in this address, the "Original Journals" of Lewis and Clark (Dodd, Mead and Company edition). Speaking of Wappatoo [Sauvie's] Island, it is said : "The nations which inhabit this fertile neighborhood are 44 Frederick V. Holman very numerous. Wappatoo Inlet [Willamette Slough] extends 300 yards wide, for ten or twelve miles to the south, as far as the hills, near which it receives the waters of a small creek [probably Scappoose Creek], whose sources are not far from those of the Killamuck River. On that creek reside the Clack- star nation, a numerous people of 1200 souls, who subsist on fish and wappatoo, and whoi trade by means of the Killamuck River with the nation of that name on the Seacoast. Lower down the Inlet, toward the Columbia, is the tribe called Cath- lacumup. On the sluice which connects the Inlet with the Multnomah are the tribes Cathlanahquiah and Cathlacomatup ; on Wappatoo Island, the tribes of Clannahminamun and Clahnaquah. Immediately opposite, near the Towahnahiooks [i. e., an Indian tribe living on the Cahwahnahiooks or Cath- lapotle or Cathlapootle River, now called Lewis River] are the Quathlapotles ; higher up on this side of the Columbia [north side] the Shotos. All these tribes, as well as the Cath- lahaws, who live somewhat lower on the river, and have an old village on Deer Island, may be considered as parts of the great Multnomah nation, which has its principal residence on Wappatoo Island, near the mouth of the large river to which they give their name All the tribes in the neigh- borhood of Wappatoo Island we have considered as Multno- mahs — not because they are in any degree subordinate to that nation, but as they all seem to regard the Multnomahs as most powerful. There is no distinguished chief, except the one at the head of the Multnomahs; and they are, moreover, linked by a similarity of dress, manners, and language, which, much more than the feeble restraints of Indian government, con- tribute to make one people. These circumstances also sep- arate them from nations lower down the river." ("Biddle edi- tion," Vol. 2, pages 226 and 227; "Coues' edition," Vol. 3, pages 931-933.) For comparison see "Original Journals," Vol. 4, pages 216, 222, 238; Vol. 6, pages 116 and 117. The aggregate number of Indians composing these tribes, as estimated by Lewis and Clark, was 5490, of which the History of the Counties of Oregon 45 Multnomah tribe had 800. All these tribes were practically exterminated by the epidemics of 1829-32. Daniel Williams Harmon was a partner in the Northwest Company. He left Montreal in 1800, in the employ of that Company, and did not return until 1819. From the autumn of 181 1 until the spring" of 1819 he was in charge of the North- west Company's affairs in what was then called New Cale- donia, in the northern interior of British Columbia. While Harmon did not keep a continuous journal, he made many entries in a book, of incidents occurring during the time he was in the Indian Country. These were published at Andover in 1820, under the title of "A Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interiour of North America." In the original edition of this book is a map of North America. On it is shown a river, called Multnomah River, rising at a lake, in what is now the State of Nevada, and flowing northwesterly into the Columbia at a point about where the Willamette flows into the Columbia. In connection with Multnomah River, as set forth on the map in Harmon's book, I call attention to Report number 213 of the House of Representatives, dated May 15, 1826, of the 19th Congress, 1st Session, being a supplemental report of the Select Committee on the bill to authorize the establishment of a military post or posts within the Territory of the United States, on the Pacific Ocean, and to provide for the explora- tion of its Coasts and Waters. This Report sets forth some fictions as well as facts. In this Report particular attention is called to the fact that the Committee "has obtained some interesting information respecting the geographical character of the Territory of the United States on the Pacific Ocean. This information was derived from Samuel Adams Ruddock, who, in the year 182 1, performed a journey by land from the Council Bluffs to the mouth of the Columbia River. Ruddock was one of a trading party, which left the Council Bluffs after the 12th of May." In this Report it is said that, after reaching Lake Trinidad, 4 6 Frederick V. Holman Ruddock's party "then pursuing the same direction across the upper branches of the Rio Colarado of California, reached Lake Timpanagos, which is intersected by the 426. parallel of latitude, the boundary between the United States of America and the United States of Mexico. This lake is the principal source of the river Timpanagos, the Multnomah of Lewis and Clarke. They then followed the course of this river to its junction with the Columbia, and reached the mouth of the Columbia on the first day of August, completing the journey from the Council Bluffs in seventy-nine days. "Many geographers have placed the Lake Timpanagos in latitude 40, but they have obviously confounded it with the Lake Theguayo, which extends from 39 40', to 41 °, and from which it is separated by a neck or peninsula; the two lakes approaching in one direction as near as 20 miles. "The river Multnomah, the great Southern tributary of the Columbia, of which, heretofore, so little has been known, is represented as navigable for any vessels which can enter the Columbia, for a distance of one hundred and fifty miles from its junction with the Columbia, where it is obstructed by a rapid. At the distance of about seventy miles, it receives the Clatmus [Clackamas], a considerable river from the East, and, at the distance of the eighty miles, it receives the Callapoio, a large river, which has its sources near the ocean, and South of latitude 42. "From its first rapid to the Lake Timpanagos, the distance is about three hundred and twenty-five miles, making the whole distance from that source to the Columbia, four hundred and seventy-five miles. Throughout the whole length it is repre- sented as navigable for vessels of eight feet draught at certain seasons of the year, no rapid (and there are several), being worse than the rapid of the Ohio at Louisville. "The other branches of the Multnomah or Timpanagos interlock with the branches of Lewis's river." Ruddock was a good and circumstantial liar. History of the Counties of Oregon 47 In Hall J. Kelley's "Geographical Sketch," published in 1830, there is a map of Oregon, showing the Multnomah River, substantially the same as on the map in Harmon's Jour- nal, excepting a larger lake in Nevada, as its source, and show- ing more tributaries, especially near its source. None of these tributaries is named. On page 35, Kelley says: "Multnomah river receives its name, as do many others, from the Indians. Its origin is from the union of two branches : one springing from a spur of the Rocky Mountains, in lat. 41 N. The other issuing from Lake Timpanogos. It traverses about 500 miles through a country of extreme fertility, and empties itself into the Columbia, opposite Wappatoo island. The first part of the country through which it runs, is level and open ; but the last, and much the greater part, is covered with the thickest and loftiest forests on the globe. This river is 500 yards wide, and furnishes five or six fathoms of water at its mouth. Excepting a sand bar, immediately at its entrance, it is free of all obstructions to navigation, 70 miles, to a place, where there are rapids, and considerable falls. This navigable section of the river furnishes a number of delightful islands, and widens into bays, where shipmasters from the ocean might find secure and commodious harbours. There are nine branches to the Multnomah. 1. Clackamus. 4. Callalipoewah. 8. Tim- panogos." Hall J. Kelley was a Boston school teacher who was an Oregon enthusiast. From the year 181 5, for many years, he wrote and published pamphlets, some of which may be called books, on Oregon and its advantages. He came to Oregon, in 1834, from California, where he arrived, in 1833, by the way of Mexico. He stayed in Oregon several months and returned home by sailing vessel by way of Cape Horn. His "Geo- graphical Sketch," which I have mentioned, is a mixture of information taken from early books and from that which he had obtained from other sources, but not from personal observ- ation. In his description of the Multnomah River he evi- dently relied on House Report number 213, dated May 15, 4 8 Frederick V. Holman 1826, from which I have quoted. This book and map show how little was known of the geography of Oregon, especially west of the Cascade Mountains, in 1830, by persons not living in that part of Oregon. In Hall J. Kelley's Memoir to Hon. Caleb Cushing, Chair- man of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, dated January 31, 1839 (Appendix O, of House Rep. 101, February 16, 1839), Kelley makes a brief statement of his trip to Oregon in 1834, and gives a fairly accurate description of the Willamette River and says: "This river has been sometimes misnamed the 'Multonomah/ " (Page 55.) On page 61 he says: "The Multonomahs, who formerly occupied the Wappatoo islands, and the country around the mouth of the Wallamette, and who numbered 3,000 souls, are all dead, and their villages reduced to desolation." One of the rarest books relating to Oregon is the "Narrative of Zenas Leonard," published at Clearfield, Pennsylvania, in 1839. Only three or four copies of the original edition are known to be in existence. A limited edition of it was reprinted, in 1904, by The Burrows Brothers Company of Cleveland, Ohio. I have a copy of this reprint. Leonard was one of a trapping party under command of Captains Gant and Black- well, which left St. Louis, Missouri, in April, 1831. In Sep- tember, 1832, the party arrived at the headwaters of the Willamette River, which Leonard calls "the Multenemough river." (Pages 123 and 124 of the Reprint). In the summer of 1833 Leonard joined the party of Capt. Bonneville (page 147 of the Reprint). What was originally called Wappatoo Island, near the mouth of the Willamette and lying between the Columbia River and Willamette Slough, is now known as Sauvie's Island. Sauve, for whom it is named, was a French-Canadian employe of the Hudson's Bay Company, who lived on the Island. The earliest public mention of the change of its name from Wappatoo, I have found, is in the following act of the Provisional Legislature, passed August 15, 1845, an( * approved History of the Counties of Oregon 49 August 19, 1845. ^ is entitled "An Act to locate a Road from Twalaty Plains to Sauves Island." Section 1 of this Act appoints Charles McKay, Robert Poe and John Flett "com- missioners to lay out and establish a Territorial road to start from some point on the Twalaty Plains and in the road lead- ing to Smiths Ferry on Yam Hill River to be settled on by said commissioners and terminate at Sauves Island." ("Manu- script copies of Laws of 1845," pages 17 and 18). Multnomah County is now bounded: on the north by the Columbia River and a portion of Columbia County; on the east by Hood River County; on the south by Clackamas County ; and on the west by Washington County. Its county seat is Portland. Curry County. Curry County was created December 18, 1855, by the Ter- ritorial Legislature. (General Laws of 1855-6, page 49). It comprises a part of the southern portion of Coos County. It was bounded on the south by the California north line; on the west by the Pacific Ocean; and on the north and east "beginning at a point on the Pacific Coast at the mouth of New River, thence east to the dividing ridge of the waters of the Coquille river and Horse creek ; thence following said divide which separates all of the waters of the Coquille river from those which discharge themselves directly into the ocean, until such ridge connects itself with the dividing ridge between the waters of the Coquille and Rogue rivers ; thence east along said ridge or divide forming the eastern tributaries of John Mule creek; thence south to the parallel of 42 degs. north latitude." * It is named for George L. Curry, the last Territorial Gov- ernor of Oregon. It is the southwestern County of Oregon. Curry County is now bounded: on the north by Coos County; on the east by Josephine County; on the south by the State of California ; and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Its county seat is Gold Beach. 50 Frederick V. Holman Josephine County. Josephine County was created January 22, 1856, by the Territorial Legislature. (General Laws of 1855-6, page 30). It comprised a part of the western portion of Jackson County. It is named for Josephine Rollins, a daughter of an early miner in that part of Oregon. Josephine County is now bounded : on the north by Douglas County; on the east by Jackson County; on the south by the California line ; and on the west by Curry County. Its county seat is Grant's Pass. Baker County. Baker County was created September 22, 1862, by the State Legislature. (General Laws of 1862, page 112). It com- prised the eastern part of Wasco County, bounded on the north by the forty-sixth parallel of latitude, the boundary line there between Oregon and Washington, on the east by Snake River to the mouth of the Owyhee River, thence south to the boundary line between Oregon and Nevada, on the south by the latter line to the one hundred and eighteenth parallel of west longtitude, and on the west by the latter longitude and the summit of the Blue Mountains. It is named for Col. E. D. Baker, who was a brilliant orator. He came to Oregon from California in the spring of i860 with the intention of being elected an United States Senator from Oregon. In this he was successful, being elected in the autumn of i860. He was killed at the battle of Ball's Bluff, Virginia, October 21, 1861, while leading a spectacular but ill-advised charge against the Confederate forces. Baker County is now bounded: on the north by Union and Wallowa Counties; on the east by Snake River, the boundary between Oregon and Idaho; on the south by Mal- heur County and a portion of Grant County; and on the west by Grant County. Its county seat is Baker City. History of the Counties of Oregon 5i Umatilla County. Umatilla County was created September 27, 1862, by the State Legislature. (General Laws of 1862, page 91). It comprised a part of Wasco County east of the mouth of Willow Creek, south of the Columbia River and the north line of Oregon, west of the summit of the Blue Mountains, and north of the divide between the middle and south forks of John Day River. It was bounded on the west by the divide between the middle and south forks of John Day River, and the divide between the latter river and Willow Creek. It derives its name from the river which flows through the county and empties into the Columbia. The first mention of the name is in the "Original Journals" of Lewis and Clark, Vol. 4, page 327, under date of April 27, 1806, on their return trip east, up the Columbia River. It is there spelled Youmalolam. It is spelled in various ways in early books on Oregon: Umatallow, by Ross in his "Adven- tures," page 125, under date of August 11, 181 1; Otillah, by Wyeth in the "Journal" of his first expedition, page 184, under date of February 14, 1833 Utallah, by Townsend in his "Narrative," page 151, under date of September 2, 1834; Umatilla, by Hastings in his "Description," page 39; Umatillo, by Palmer in his "Journal," page 58, under date of September 19, 1845 j Umatilla, by Farnham in his "Travels in the Great Western Prairies," page 284. Gustavus Hines, in his "Ore- gon," page 163, under date of May 8, 1843, spells the name Utilla, while in his "Summary," page 322, he spells it Una- tilla. Fedix in his book, "L'Oregon" (1846), page 48, spells the name Umotella. Hall J. Kelley, in his "Geographical Sketch," pages 27 and 37, adopts the name Youmalolam as given by Lewis and Clark. On the United States map of 1838, and on the British map of 1840 compiled by J. Arrow- smith, the name of the Umatilla River is spelled Umatallow. In the autumn of 1834, Captain Louis Eulalie de Bonneville, U. S. A., known as Captain Bonneville, was at the headwaters 52 Frederick V. Holman of the Umatilla River. On page 206 of Volume 2 of "The Rocky Mountains," by Washington Irving, published in 1837, and being an account of the adventures of Captain Bonne- ville, the name of this river is spelled Ottolais. On the map in this volume the river is shown and spelled Ottalais. Medorem Crawford was an Oregon immigrant of 1842. In his manuscript Journal, kept by him on his journey across the plains, and published by the University of Oregon in 1897, he says that on September 20, 1842, the party "crossed the Unadilla" (page 21) meaning the Umatilla River. It is popularly supposed that there is a tribe of Indians whose name is Umatilla. This is erroneous. This name, as applied to Indians, arises from the fact that Indians live on the Umatilla Indian Reservation and are therefore called Umatillas. The tribe, whose habitat was partly on the Uma- tilla River, is the Cayuse, a branch of the Shahaptian family. This family includes the Nez Perce, Walla Walla and other tribes. The Cayuse was a powerful but treacherous tribe in early Oregon days, with whom was fought the Cayuse War of 1847-8, caused by the Whitman massacre. Umatilla County is now bounded : on the north by the Colum- bia River and the State of Washington ; on the east by Union County; on the south by Grant County; and on the west by Morrow County. Its county seat is Pendleton. Grant County. Grant County was created October 14, 1864, by the State Legislature. (Special Laws of 1864, page 43). It comprised parts of the eastern portion of Wasco County and of the southern portion of Umatilla County as those two Counties then were. It is named for General U. S. Grant, who, at the time of its creation, was the most popular Union general in the Civil war. Grant County is now bounded: on the north by Umatilla History of the Counties of Oregon 53 County and portions of Morrow and Union Counties; on the east by Baker County and a small portion of Malheur County ; on the South by Harney County ; and on the west by portions of Wheeler County and Crook County. Its county seat is Canyon City. Union County. Union County was created October 14, 1864, by the State Legislature (Special Laws of 1864, page 37). It comprised a part of the northern portion of Baker County. Its name was given during the Civil War, when the word Union was popular and used as a name without particular regard to its fitness. The motto on the seal of the Territory of Oregon was "Alis Volat Propriis — she flies with her own wings. The motto on the seal of the State of Oregon, "The Union," was adopted June 2, 1859. As was sa ^ by Judge M. P. Deady, in a foot-note on page 627, of his compilation of the Laws of Oregon 1845- 1864, "It is to be regretted that this seal [Territorial Seal] was not continued as the seal of the State, by simply substituting 'the State of Oregon' for 'the Territory of Oregon.' In design and propriety, it is in every way superior to the obscure and meaningless one of the State." Union County is now triangular in shape, Wallowa County having been created out of the eastern portion of Union County. The apex is at the north, on the Washington State line. By an act of the State Legislature, approved February 18, 1899 (General Laws of 1899, page 169), there was an- nexed to Wallowa County "all that portion of Union County lying east of the summit of the Blue Mountains and north of what is known as Elbow Gulch." Where the forty-sixth par- allel of latitude crosses the summit of the Blue Mountains was the beginning point of the original north line of Union County. Union County is now bounded on the north by the Wash- ington State line; on the east by Wallowa County; on the south by portions of Baker and Grant Counties; and on the west by Umatilla County. Its county seat is La Grande.


Lake County.

Lake County was created October 24, 1874, by the State Legislature (General Laws of 1874, page 38). It comprised the southern portion of Wasco County as the latter then was. It was bounded on the south by the California State line; on the west by Jackson, Douglas, and Lane Counties; on the north by the south line of township number twenty-two south of the Oregon Base line, the present south line of Crook County; and on the east by the east boundary of township number twenty-three east of the Willamette Meridian.

It derives its name by reason of the numerous lakes within its boundaries.

Lake County is now bounded: on the north by a portion of Crook County; on the east by a portion of Harney County; on the south by the California and Nevada State lines; and on the west by Klamath County. Its county seat is Lakeview.


Klamath County.

Klamath County was created October 17, 1882, by the State Legislature. (Special Laws of 1882, page 107). It comprises the western portion of Lake County as the latter was originally.

Its name is derived from Klamath Lakes. Upper Klamath Lake is in Klamath County. Lower Klamath Lake is partly in that county and partly in Siskiyou County, California. From the fact that the country around Upper Klamath Lake is the habitat of an Indian tribe it is usually called the Klamath tribe.

The name is spelled in various ways in early books on Oregon: Clammat, in Wyeth's Journal of his first expedition, page 181; Clamath, in Lee and Frost's "Ten Years in Oregon," page 177; Klamac, in Duflot de Mofras' "Exploration," Vol. History of the Counties of Oregon 55 2, page 335 ; Klamet, in Appendix of George Wilkes' "History of Oregon," page 102; and Clamet, in Dr. Elijah White's "Ten Years in Oregon," page 259, and in Farnham's "Travels in California and Oregon" (1852), page 338. In Farnham's "Travels" (1843) at pages 246 and 247, the name is spelled Klamet. In many early books and reports on Oregon the name is spelled Klamet. Capt. John C. Fremont, in his exploring expedition to Ore- gon and north California in 1843-4, went from The Dalles to California overland, east of the Cascade Mountains and by Upper Klamath Lake. In his report, dated March 1, 1845, he writes of this Lake and the Indians living near it, spelling the name Tlamath. On page 196 of this report, under date of November 18, 1843, ne says: "The first of these points was the Tlamath lake, .... from which lake a river of the same name makes its way westwardly direct to the ocean. This lake and river are often called Klamet, but I have chosen to write its name according to the Indian pronun- ciation." Mr. T. C. Elliott, of Walla Walla, Washington, who has a copy of Peter Skene Ogden's Journal, has informed me that Ogden was at or near Klamath Lake in the autumn of 1826. In this Journal the name is spelled Clamitte. The Lake and Indians had been named or the name ascertained previous to Ogden's trip, presumably by Hudson's Bay Com- pany's trappers, under Finan McDonald, who were there in 1825. Report No. 31, House of Representatives, 27th Congress, 3rd Session, was ordered to be printed January 4, 1843. ^ is the report of the Committee on Military Affairs on the establishment of military posts from Council Bluffs to the Pacific Ocean. An Appendix of this Report (pages 56-61) consists of extracts from the Journal of Capt. Spalding, who was in command of the ship Lausanne, which brought to Oregon, in 1840, what is called "the great re-enforcement" to Frederick V. Holman the Oregon Methodist Missions. In this Journal Capt. Spald- ing calls these Indians, Climath. In Wilkes' "Western America," pages 57 and 58, he calls the Klamath River "The Klamet or Tootootutna River." On page 101, quoting from Hale, he says : "On the lower part of the Klamet River are the Tototune, known by the un- favorable sobriquet of the Rogue or Rascal Indians," and also says that the name Klamet is probably "a term of Chinook origin." On the map in the Atlas of Wilkes' "Narrative" and on the map bound in Wilkes' "Western America," the Indian tribe near Klamath Lakes is designated as "Klamet or Lutuami." In Volume 1, page 712 of "Handbook of Indian Tribes North of Mexico," being a report of the Bureau of Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution, dated July 1, 1905, it is said of the Klamath Indians: "A Lutumanian tribe in S. W. Oregon. They call themselves Eukshikni or Auksni, 'people of the lake', referring to the fact that their principal seats were on Upper Klamath Lake." Klamath County is now bounded on the north by portions of Crook and Lane Counties ; on the east by Lake County ; on the south by the California State line; and on the west by Jackson and Douglas Counties and a portion of Lane County. Its county seat is Klamath Falls. Crook County. Crook County was created October 24, 1882, by the State Legislature. (Special Laws of 1882, page 178). It comprises a part of the southern portion of Wasco County, as the latter was after Lake County was created. Crook County's northern line begins at the western boundary line of Wasco County where it "is intersected by the line between townships eight and nine south." This northern line of Crook County runs east to the John Day River. The line then runs up the main channel of said river to the west line of Grant County. The rest of the east line of Crook County is the line then between History of the Counties of Oregon 57 Grant and 1 Wasco Counties. The southern line is the line then between Lake and Wasco Counties to the east line of Lane County. The western line is the line as it then was between Lane and Linn Counties, and Wasco County. It is named for Major-General George Crook, U. S. A., who had command, at one time, of the Department of the Columbia. He was an officer who had greatly distinguished himself in the Civil war. After this war he won great fame by his successful compaigns against the Indians, in Idaho and Ari- zona, and later against the Sioux and Cheyennes. In every Indian campaign he was successful. After the Custer Mas- sacre, June 26, 1876, Gen. Crook fought the Indians engaged in that massacre, inflicting a severe defeat on them in Dakota and completely reduced them to subjection. In 1882 he went to Arizona and carried on another successful campaign against the Indians. There never has been another Indian fighter more successful than Gen. Crook. He belonged to the class of "rough and ready" fighters of Indians. He was humane to the Indians in time of peace and was highly respected by them. Throughout the country, west of the Mississippi River, his fame is established for all time. It is fitting that a county of Oregon should be named for him. Crook County is now bounded: on the north by Wasco County; on the east by portions of Wheeler, Grant, and Harney Counties ; on the south by Lake County and a portion of Klamath County; and on the west by Linn, and portions of Lane and Marion Counties. Its county seat is Prineville. Morrow County. Morrow County was created February 16, 1885, by the State Legislature. (Special Laws of 1885, page 239). It comprises a part of the western portion of Umatilla County, as the latter then was. It is named for Jackson L. Morrow, who is an old resident of what was created Morrow County. He was a member of the Oregon Legislature when the bill passed. 58 Frederick V. Holman Morrow County is now bounded: on the north by the Columbia River ; on the east by Umatilla County ; on the south by portions of Grant and Wheeler Counties; and on the west by Gilliam County and a small portion of Wheeler County. Its county seat is Heppner. Gilliam County. Gilliam County was created February 25, 1885, by the State Legislature. (Special Laws of 1885, page 404). It comprises the northeastern portion of Wasco County, as the latter then was, and a part of the western portion of Umatilla County, as the latter was prior to the creation of Morrow County, nine days previous to the creation of Gilliam County, the latter being west of Morrow County. It is named for Colonel Cornelius Gilliam, an Oregon pioneer of 1844, wno was accidentally killed at Wells Springs, March 20, 1848, while in command of the Oregon Volunteer forces in the Cayuse Indian war. This war was fought against the Indians wholly under the Oregon Provisional Gov- ernment by Volunteers from the Willamette Valley. He was worthy of having an Oregon county named for him. Gilliam County is now bounded : on the north by the Colum- bia River; on the east by Morrow County; on the south by Wheeler County and a very small portion of Morrow County ; and on the west by the John Day River, the common bound- ary of Gilliam and Sherman Counties and a very small portion of Wasco County. The small portions of Morrow County on the south, and of Wasco County on the west is due to the south line of Gilliam County being one mile south of the First Standard Parallel south. Its county seat is Condon. Wallowa County. Wallowa County was created February 11, 1887, Dv tne State Legislature. (General Laws of 1887, page 142). It comprises a part of the eastern portion of the original Union County. It is the northeastern County of Oregon. History of the Counties of Oregon 59 The name is that of the beautiful Wallowa Lake and its outlet, the Wallowa River. The part of Oregon which comprises Wallowa County, in early days was isolated. It was far from the usually travelled route of early travellers, fur-traders, and immigrants. In October, 1805, and in May, 1806, the Lewis and Clark ex- pedition was at the mouth of the Clearwater River, which Lewis and Clark called the Kooskooskee. Lewiston, Idaho, is situated at the junction of the Clearwater with the Snake River. Wallowa County is a short distance south of Lewis- ton. Lewis and Clark's expedition did not go into what is now Wallowa County. In the winter of 181 1-2, Wilson Price Hunt and his party en route, overland, to Astoria, attempted to descend the Snake River. They started in canoes, but they were compelled to abandon their canoes, and proceed down the banks of the river, some of the party being on the east side, the others on the west side of the Snake River. The whole party nearly perished from hunger and other hardships. December 24, 181 1, the party left the Snake River and proceeded westward to the Columbia River, which they reached January 21, 18 12, at a point not far south of the Walla Walla River. On the way from the Snake River to the Columbia, the exact route of the party is not described nor can it definitely be ascertained, but undoubtedly it was through what is now Wallowa County, probably south of Wallowa Lake. The only river or stream between the Snake River and the Columbia which is men- tioned by name, except Walla Walla River, it is said "was called by the natives Eu-o-tal-la, or Umatalla." (Irving's "Astoria", Vol. 2, page 65). In 1833 an d 1834, Capt. Bonneville and his party were in what is now Wallowa County. He does not mention the name Wallowa. He does mention the Imnaha River, which he calls the Immahah, and the Way-lee-way which is the Nez Perce name of the Grande Ronde River. The eastern and southern parts of Wallowa County, in6o Frederick V. Holman eluding the Wallowa Valley, were the habitat of the Lower Nez Perce Indians, at the time of the beginning of the noted war with them, which began in June, 1877, and ended in October of the same year. Their Chief was the famous Indian known as Chief Joseph. To be certain of the meaning or origin of the name, I wrote to A. C. Smith, now living at Enterprise, in Wallowa County. For may years he lived with the Indians, in that vicinity, and speaks one or more of the tribal languages. He kindly wrote me saying that he had learned from the Umatilla and the Nez Perce Indians that the Wallowa River was named by the fact that, many generations ago, the Nez Perce Indians placed the first fish trap in that river, and the salmon failed, from some cause unknown to them, to go into the trap and, after leaving the trap set in the river until time to go into their winter quarters, they arrived at a superstitious notion that some charm had intervened to prevent the fish from going in. And so, when they went away, they left the trap standing in the river, to be destroyed by the floods, al- though in other rivers it had been their constant practice to haul the most valuable timbers out of the river for use the next summer and to save them from destruction from the next spring's floods. Thereafter the river was always called by them by the name "fish trap," an Indian word for which is Wallowa. Wallowa County is now bounded: on the north by the State of Washington; on the east by the Snake River; the boundary between the States of Oregon and Idaho; on the south by Baker County; and on the west by Union County. Its county seat is Enterprise. Malheur County. Malheur County was created February 17, 1887, by the State Legislature. (General Laws of 1887, P a §" e x 38). It comprises what was the southern and middle portions of Baker County. It is the southeastern county of Oregon. History of the Counties of Oregon 6i It is named for the Malheur River, which runs through the County, flowing into Snake River. Malheur is a French word meaning misfortune; bad luck; disaster. Literally it means "evil hour." In French its meaning is opposite to that of the word "bonheur." The origin of the name as applied to the River, I have obtained through the courtesy of Mr. T. C. Elliott of Walla Walla, Washington, who is an historical student, well versed in the history of Oregon and Washington. He has a copy of the manuscript Journal of Peter Skene Ogden, the original of which is in the possession of the Hudson's Bay Company at its headquarters in London, Eng- land. In Ogden's "Journal" of his second trip to the Snake River country in 1825-6, under date of February 14, 1826, is the following entry: "Started early; sent my two Snake hunters out with 6 traps each and 2 horses to North side of river. I also gave them two scalping knives % doz rings, % doz buttons to trade and 20 balls to hunt. I have now all my trappers in motion; we encamped on River au Malheur (unfortunate River) so called on account of goods and furs hid here dis- covered and stolen by the natives. Gervaise killed 2 small deer ; 3 beaver." 1 After a very careful study of the matter Mr. Elliott is of the opinion that the name Malheur was given to the river by Donald McKenzie, one of the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company, who, previous to Ogden's trip in 1826, had charge of a party of trappers in that part of the country. McKenzie had maintained a temporary trading post, for about a year, at the mouth of the Payette River, a short distance from the mouth of the Malheur River. The entry in Ogden's "Journal" indicates that the river had been named before he arrived there. I have the very rare pamphlet, published at Washington, D. C, in 1846, entitled "Route and Distance to Oregon and California," written by J. M. Shively, an Oregon pioneer of 1 This Journal is published in full in the Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society for December, 191 0. 62 Frederick V. Holman 1845, whose donation claim is a part of the present City of Astoria, platted as Shively's Astoria. Shively went to the Eastern States in 1846 and returned to Astoria in 1847. It is a guide book for Oregon immigrants intending to cross the plains and is replete with good advice, which must have been of great aid to immigrants as it sets forth what supplies should be taken, the kind of wagons and animals to be used, where good camping places and water could be found, and a table of distances. On page 10, in two places, he speaks of the Mal- heur River and calls it the Mallair River. Malheur County is now bounded: on the north by Baker County and the Snake River ; on the east by the Snake River and the State of Idaho ; on the south by the State of Nevada ; and on the west by Harney County and a small portion of Grant County. Its county seat is Vale. Harney County. Harney County was created February 25, 1889, by the State Legislature. (General Laws of 1889, page 47). It comprises what were the southern and middle portions of Grant County. It is named for Major-General William Selby Harney, who was a noted Indian fighter, having taken part in the Black Hawk and Florida wars, and a war with the Sioux Indians. He was in the Mexican war and, for his part in the battle of Cerro Gordo, was brevetted brigadier-general. Upon being appointed a brigadier-general in January, 1858, he was assigned to the command of the Department of Oregon, being stationed at Vancouver Barracks. It was while in this com- mand, in July, 1859, he took military possession of San Juan Island, in the waters north of Puget Sound, which nearly led to a war with Great Britain. That he was right in claiming that the San Juan Archipelago belonged to the United States was determined October 21, 1872, by the decision of Emperor William, the matter having been submitted to him for arbitraHistory of the Counties of Oregon 63 tion and award under the Treaty of Washington, of May 8, 1871. During the early part of the civil war he was in command in Missouri. He was placed on the retired list in August, 1863. At the close of the war he was brevetted Major General "for long and faithful services." Harney County is now bounded: on the north by Grant County, and small portions of Crook County; on the east by a portion of Malheur County; on the south by a portion of Lake County and the State of Nevada; and on the west by Lake County and a portion of Crook County. Its county seat is Burns. Sherman County. Sherman County was created February 25, 1889, by the State Legislature. (General Laws of 1889, page 82). It com- prises a part of the northeastern portion of Wasco County, as the latter then was. Sherman County is named for General William Tecumseh Sherman. Sherman County is bounded : on the north by the Columbia and John Day Rivers; on the east by the John Day River, the common boundary of Sherman and Gilliam Counties ; on the south by Wasco County ; and on the west by a portion of Wasco County and the Deschutes River a part of the latter being a part of the common boundary of Sherman and Wasco Counties. Its county seat is Moro. Lincoln County. Lincoln County was created February 20, 1893, by the State Legislature. (General Laws of 1893, page 68). It comprises the Siletz Indian Reservation, lying between Polk County and the Pacific Ocean, and the western portion of Benton County as the latter then was. It is named for Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln County is now bounded : on the north by Tillamook County ; on the east by Benton County and a portion of Polk 6 4 Frederick V. Holman County; on the south by Lane County; and on the west by the Pacific Ocean. Its county seat is Toledo. Wheeler County. Wheeler County was created February 17, 1899, by the State Legislature. (General Laws of 1899, page 51). It comprises what were then portions of Crook, Gilliam, and Grant Counties. It is named for Henry H. Wheeler, an old resident of that part of the country which is now Wheeler County. Wheeler County is now bounded: on the north by Gilliam County and a small portion of Morrow County; on the east by Grant County and a small portion of Morrow County; on the south by a portion of Crook County; and on the west by a portion of Crook County and the John Day River the latter being the common boundary of Wheeler County and Wasco County. Its county seat is Fossil. Hood River County. Hood River County was created under an initiative petition, as provided by the Constitution of Oregon, at the election held June 1, 1908. The law thus creating it went into effect June 23, 1908. (General Laws of 1909, page 39). It comprises a part of the northwestern portion of Wasco County as the latter then was. Its name is derived from Hood River, which rises at Mount Hood and runs through the County and flows into the Colum- bia River. Mount Hood was discovered, October 29, 1792, by Lieut. W. R. Broughton, R. N., who was Vancouver's chief lieutenant and second in command of Vancouver's ex- pedition. He was the first white man to ascend the Columbia River, above Gray's Bay. He named the mountain for Lord Hood, an English nobleman, for whom is also named Hood's Canal, an arm of Puget Sound. Hood River County is now bounded: on the north by the Columbia River; on the east by a portion of Wasco County; History of the Counties of Oregon 65 on the south by a portion of Wasco County ; and on the west by Multnomah County and a portion of Clackamas County. Its county seat is Hood River. In this address I have endeavored to be accurate. If there are any errors they should be corrected by those knowing the facts. I shall be pleased to have any such corrections made, for it is important that the facts relating to the history of Oregon should be written in the life time of living witnesses, so far as possible. It is one of the functions of the Oregon Historical Society to assist in making, from time to time, an accurate record of the history of Oregon. As the population of Oregon increases there will be prob- ably one or more counties created west of the Cascade Moun- tains. Owing to the large size of several of the counties east of the Cascade Mountains there will be created out of these, undoubtedly, several counties. One of these counties should be named for Dr. John McLoughlin, the Father of Oregon. APPENDIX. Descriptions of Boundaries of Oregon Counties as Set Forth in Acts Creating Them. The beginning of the Provisional Government was May 2, 1843 5 tne fi rst regular session of its Legislative Committee, afterwards called its Legislature, began May 16, 1843, at Oregon City. Its last session was at Oregon City and it adjourned sine die February 16, 1849. The Territory of Oregon was established by an Act of Congress August 14, 1848. March 3, 1849, General Joseph Lane, its first Governor, issued his proclamation assuming charge as Governor. The first meeting of the Territorial Legislature began at Oregon City, July 16, 1849. ^ ast session adjourned sine die January 22, 1859, at Salem. 66 Frederick V. Holman The Act of Congress admitting the State of Oregon into the Union was approved February 14, 1859. The first meeting of the State Legislature began at Salem, May 16, 1859. Baker County. "All that portion of Wasco county, commencing at a point where the 46th parallel of latitude crosses the summit of the Blue mountains ; thence east, along said line to its intersection with Snake river; thence up the middle of the channel of said river, to the mouth of the Owyhee river ; thence south, to the 42d parallel of latitude; thence west, along said line, tx> its intersection with the 118th parallel of west longitude ; thence north, along said line to the summit of the Blue mountains; thence along the summit of said mountains, between the waters of Burnt and Powder rivers, and the waters of John Day's river, to the place of beginning." (General Laws of 1862, page 112). Benton County. "Commencing in the middle of the Willamette river, at the southeast corner of Polk County, and running south along the main channel of said river to the middle fork thereof ; thence up said middle fork to its source ; thence due south to the 42d parallel of north latitude; thence west along said parallel to the Pacific ocean; thence north along the coast of said ocean to the southern boundary of Polk County." (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, P a £ e 5°)- Champooick District Or County. "Bounded on the north by a supposed line drawn from the mouth of the Anchiyoke [Pudding] River, running due east to the Rocky Mountains, west by the Willamette, or Multno- mah River, and a supposed line running due south from said river to the parallel of 42 °, north latitude; south by the boundary line of the United States and California, and east History of the Counties of Oregon by the summit of the Rocky Mountains." "Approved by the people, July 5th, 1843". ("Oregon Archives," page 26). Clackamas District Or County. "Comprehending all the territory not included in the other three districts" i. e., Twality, Yamhill and Champooick Dis- tricts. ("Oregon Archives," page 26.) Clatsop County. I have been unable to find a copy of the act creating Clatsop County. By an act passed by the Provisional Legislature approved December 19, 1845, it was enacted "That the line dividing Clatsop and Tuality districts shall commence in the middle of the main channel of the Columbia river at Oak Point mountain, on said river; thence south to a supposed line dividing Yamhill and Tuality districts ; thence west along said line to the Pacific ocean ; thence north along said line to the mouth of the Columbia river; thence up the middle of the main channel to the place of beginning." (General and Specials Laws of 1843-9, P a £ e 36). By an act passed January 15, 1855, tne Territorial Legis- lature established the boundary lines of Clatsop County as follows : "Commencing on the base line west from Portland, at a point where the west line of Washington county crosses said base line ; thence, on a direct line, to the head of the south branch of Nehalem river ; thence, down said river, to the Pacific Ocean; thence northerly, along the sea shore, to the mouth of Columbia river, thence, up the Columbia river, to west line of Columbia county; thence, along the said west line of Columbia county, to the corner of Washington county; thence, along the west line of Washington county, to the place of beginning." (Special Laws of 1854-5, page 33). 68 Frederick V. Holman Columbia County. "All that portion of Washington county, embraced 1 within the following described boundaries, to wit: commencing at a point on the bank of the Columbia river where John Bonser's and James Miller's line commences on said river, thence running due west, to the west bank of the Willamette slough, thence south-west to the summit range of the Scappoose mountains, thence along the summit of said mountains to the western line of said county of Washington, thence along said line to the Columbia river, thence up the main channel of the Columbia river to the place of beginning." (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 32). Coos County. "All that portion of Umpqua and Jackson counties, em- braced within the following boundaries, to-wit: beginning at a point on the Pacific coast, eight miles below the mouth of Umpqua river, thence southeast to the dividing ridge between the waters of Umpqua on the east, and the Coos and Coquille rivers on the west, thence along the summit of aforesaid divid- ing ridge, to the north-west corner of Douglas county, thence south along the summit of the coast range of mountains to the source of the south branch of Coquille river, thence continuing south, crossing the 426. parallel, thence due west along said line, to the Pacific coast, thence along the coast to the place of beginning." (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 13). Crook County. "Beginning at a point on the western boundary line of Wasco county where the same is intersected by the line between townships eight and nine south, from thence east on said line to the John Day river; thence up the main channel of said river to the west line of Grant county; thence on the line between Grant and Wasco counties to the southeast corner of Wasco county; thence on the line between Wasco History of the Counties of Oregon 69 and Lake counties to the east boundary line of Lane county ; thence on the line between Lane, Linn and Wasco counties to the place of beginning." (Special Laws of 1882, page 178). Curry County. "All that portion of Coos county embraced within the following boundaries, to-wit: beginning at a point on the Pacific coast, at the mouth of New river, thence east to the dividing ridge of the waters of the Coquille river and Horse creek; thence following said divide which separates all of the waters of the Coquille river from those which discharge themselves directly into the ocean, until such ridge connects itself with the dividing ridge between the waters of the Coquille and Rogue rivers; thence east along said ridge or divide, to the divide forming the eastern tributaries of John Mule creek; thence south to the parallel of 42 degs. north latitude ; thence west to the ocean ; thence north along the line of the Pacific coast, to the place of beginning." (General Laws of 1855-6, page 49). Douglas County. The original boundaries of Umpqua County were as fol- lows : "All that portion of Oregon Territory lying within the fol- lowing boundaries, to-wit : "Beginning at the southeast corner of Benton County, and running due east along the south line of Benton County to the dividing ridge of the Calapooiah Mountains, thence along the ridge of the said Calapooiah Mountains, to the source of the main fork of the Calapooiah Creek, thence down said creek to its mouth, thence due west to the Pacific Ocean, and thence along the coast to the place of beginning." (Local Laws of 1 850- 1, page 33.) The boundaries of Douglas County are thus defined by the Act of the Territorial Legislature of January 7, 1852: Frederick V. Holman "Commencing at the mouth of Calapooia creek ; thence fol- lowing said creek up its main fork to its source; thence due east to the summit of the Cascade range of mountains ; thence running due south to the summit of the dividing ridge separat- ing the waters of Rogue river, from the waters of the Umpqua ; thence westerly along the summit of said ridge to the summit of the Coast range of mountains separating the waters of Coquille and Cones [Coues] rivers, from the Umpqua; thence northerly along the summit of said Coast range, to a point where the south line of Umpqua county crosses said range; thence due east along the south line of Umpqua county, to the point of beginning." (Local Laws of 1851-2, page 18). The Act of October 16, 1862, provides: "That all that portion of territory hitherto embraced within the boundaries of the counties of Douglas and Umpqua be, and the same are hereby, united, and consolidated into one county, under the name, organization and jurisdiction of Douglas County." (General Laws of 1862, page 59). Gilliam County. "Beginning at a point in the middle of the Columbia river, where the east line of range 22 east Willamette meridian crosses said river; thence south along said east line to the south line of township three south; from thence east along said south line to the east line of range 23 east, thence south along said range line to the south line of township four south ; thence east to the east line of range 24 east; thence south to the Grant county line; thence west to the east line of range 22 east; thence south to the John Day river; thence down (to) the center of the main channel of the said river to a point in the middle of the Columbia river opposite the mouth of the John Day river; thence up the center of the main channel of the Columbia river to the place of beginning." (Special Laws of 1885, page 404). History of the Counties of Oregon 7i Grant County. "All that portion of Wasco and Umatilla counties embraced within the following lines, to-wit: Beginning at a point on the forty-second parallel of north latitude, crossed by the one hundred and twentieth line of longitude west, thence north along said line to the forty-fifth parallel of north latitude, thence east along said parallel to the one hundredth and eight- eenth line of west longitude, thence south along said line to the forty-second parallel of north latitude, thence west along said parallel to the place of beginning." (Special Laws of 1864, page 43). Harney County. "All that portion of Grant county lying south of the fol- lowing described line be and the same hereby is created and organized into a separate county by the name of Harney, viz. : Beginning at a point where the west line of Grant county crosses the township line between townships 18 and 19 in said county of Grant, and running thence east on said town- ship line to the west line of the old Malheur Indian reserva- tion in said county of Grant ; thence north following the west line of said Indian reservation six miles; thence east to the east line of Grant county." (General Laws of 1889, page 47)- Hood River County. "Beginning at a point in the middle of the channel of the Columbia river opposite the meander corner between sections three and four, township two north, range eleven east of Willamette Meridian, then running south along the section line between sections three and four and said line extended to a point on the base line at the southeast corner of section thirty-three, in township one north, range eleven east, Willam- ette Meridian, thence west along said base line to the north- east corner of township one south, range ten east of Willamette 72 Frederick V. Holman Meridian thence south along the township line to the south- east corner of township three south, range ten east of Willam- ette Meridian, thence west along the south line of township three south, range ten east and said line extended along the south side of township three south, range nine east of Willam- ette Meridian, to the summit of the Cascade Mountains, and the line between Clackamas and Wasco counties ; thence north- erly along the summit of the Cascade Mountains and along the line between Clackamas and Wasco, and between Mult- nomah and Wasco counties to the middle of the channel of the Columbia River and the northwest corner of Wasco County; thence in a general easterly course along the center of the channel of the Columbia river to the place of beginning." (General Laws of 1909, page 39). Jackson County. "Beginning at the southwest corner of Umpqua county; thence running due east to the northwest corner of Douglas county ; thence southerly along the western boundary line of Douglas county to the southwest corner of said county ; thence easterly along the southern boundary of said Douglas county, to the southeast corner thereof ; thence in a southeast direction to the eastern extremity of Rogue river valley; thence due south to the boundary line between Oregon and California; thence due west along said boundary line to the Pacific coast ; thence northerly along the coast to the point of beginning." (Local Laws of 1851-2, page 19). Josephine County. "All that portion of Jackson county embraced within the following limits, to-wit: Beginning at the southwest corner of township No. (32) thirty-two, range No. (5) five west, being the southern boundary of Douglas county; thence west along the dividing ridge separating the waters of Cow creek from those of Rogue and Coquille rivers, to the northeast History of the Counties of Oregon 73 corner of Curry county; thence south, along the eastern line of said county, to the summit of the divide separating the waters of Rogue river from the waters of Illinois river; thence west, along said divide, to a point on said divide (7) seven miles east of the junction of the waters of Rogue and Illinois rivers; thence south, to the 42d degree of parallel of north latitude; thence east, along said parallel, to a point where range (4) four west intersects said parallel; thence north to the southeast corner of township No. (36) thirty- six ; thence west, to the southwest corner of said town ; thence north, to the place of beginning." (General Laws of 1855-6, page 30). Klamath County. "Beginning on the south boundary line of the State of Ore- gon at its intersection with the line between range No. 15 and 16 east; thence due north to the south line of township number 32 south ; thence due west to the line between ranges No. 11 and 12 east; thence due north to the south line of town- ship number 22 south, being the south boundary of Wasco county ; thence due west to the summit of the Cascade Moun- tains; thence southerly along said summit to its intersection with the line between ranges number 4 and 5 east; thence due south on said range line to the south boundary line of the State of Oregon, and thence east along said boundary line to the place of beginning." (Special Laws of 1882, page 107). Lake County. "Beginning on the forty-second parallel of north latitude at a point where said parallel is intersected by the east bound- ary of Township No. 23, east of the Willamette Meridian; thence due north on said Township line to the south boundary line of Township No. 22, south of the Oregon base line; thence due west on said Township line to the east boundary line of Lane county ; thence southerly along said boundary 74 Frederick V. Holman line and the east boundary line of Douglas county to the south- east corner of said Douglas county; thence to, and south, on the east boundary of Township No. 4, east of the Willamette Meridian to said forty-second parallel of North Latitude; thence due east along said parallel to the place of beginning." (General Laws of 1874, page 38). Lane County. "All that portion of Oregon Territory lying south of Linn county and South of so much of Benton county as is east of Umpqua County." (Local Laws of 1850-1, page 32). Lincoln County. "Beginning at the northwest corner of Siletz Indian reserva- tion ; thence east to the Polk county line ; thence south to the Benton county line; thence east six miles to the west bound- ary of range 7 west of Willamette meridian; thence south on said range line to the center of township 13 south; thence west on the section line to range line between ranges 8 and 9 west; thence south to the Lane county line; thence west along the said line of Lane county to the Pacific ocean; thence north along the Pacific ocean to the place of beginning." (General Laws of 1893, page 68). Linn County. The Act creating Linn county is entitled: ("AN ACT De- fining the Southern Boundary of Champoeg County, and to establish Linn County." It provides: "That the southern boundary of Champoeg county be located in the following manner: Commencing in the middle of the channel of the Willamette river, opposite the mouth of the Santiam river, thence up said river to the north fork; thence up said fork to the Cascade mountains; thence due east to the summit of the Rocky mountains" and "That all that portion of Oregon Territory lying south of History of the Counties of Oregon 75 Champoeg and east of Benton county be and the same is hereby called Linn county." (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, page 55)- Malheur County. "Beginning at a point on the boundary line between the State of Oregon and Nevada, which is at the southeast corner of Grant county, in the State of Oregon ; thence north on the line between Grant county and Baker county to the first angle corner in the east line of said Grant county; thence north on range line between ranges 36 and 37 east to the summit of the Burnt River mountains, in township 15 south of range 36 east; thence easterly and following the summit of said Burnt River mountains to the intersection of the south boundary line of township 14 south of range 43 east ; thence east on the said south boundary line of township 14 to the middle channel of Snake river, between the State of Oregon and the Territory of Idaho ; thence up the meanderings of said Snake river on the line between Oregon and Idaho to the mouth of the Owyhee river on said line; thence south on the line between Oregon and Idaho to the north line of the State of Nevada ; thence west on the north line of Nevada to the place of beginning." (General Laws of 1887, page 138). Marion County. Originally named Champooick District, with the following description : "Bounded on the north by a supposed line drawn from the mouth of the Anchiyoke River, running due east to the Rocky Mountains, west by the Willamette, or Multnomah River, and a supposed line running due south from said river to the parallel of 42 °, north latitude; south by the boundary line of the United States and California, and east by the summit of the Rocky Mountains." "Approved by the people, July 5th, 1843." ("Oregon Archives," page 26). 7 6 Frederick V. Holman The name was changed to Marion by the Territorial Leg- islature, September 3, 1849, Dv an Act which provided : "The name of the County of Champoeg [Champooick] be and the same is hereby changed to Marion." (See Local Laws of 1850-1, page 53). Morrow County. "Beginning at a point in the middle of the channel of the Columbia river, directly opposite to and due north from the half township line running north and south through the center of township five north of range twenty-seven east of the Willamette meridian; thence running due south to and on said line to the north boundary line of township one north of said range; thence due east on the township line to its intersection with the range line between ranges twenty-eight and twenty-nine east of the Willamette meridian; thence due south on said range line to the base line; thence due east on the base line to its intersection with the range line between ranges twenty-nine and thirty east of the Willamette meridian ; thence due south on said range line to the southeast corner of township six south of range twenty-nine east of the Willam- ette meridian; thence due west on the township line to its intersection with the range line between ranges twenty-four and twenty-five east of the Willamette meridian; thence due north on said range line to its intersection with the township line between townships four and five south; thence due west on said township line to its intersection with the range line between ranges twenty-three and twenty-four east of the Willamette meridian ; thence due north on said range line to its intersection with the township line between townships three and four south; thence due west on said township line to its intersection with the range line between ranges twenty- two and! twenty-three east of the Willamette meridian ; thence due north on said range line and the projection thereof to the middle of the channel of the Columbia river; thence up History of the Counties of Oregon 77 and along the center of the channel of said river to the place of beginning." (Special Laws of 1885, page 239). Multnomah County. "Beginning in the middle of the main channel of the Colum- bia river, at the southeast corner of the county of Columbia ; thence west, by the boundary line of Columbia county, to the middle of the second range of townships west of the Willam- ette Meridian ; thence south, by the section line, to the centre of the second township north of the base line; thence one mile south and one mile east, alternately, by section lines, to the Willamette Meridian; thence south, by the said Meridian line, to the township line between townships one and two south of the base line; thence east, by the township line, to the middle of the Willamette river; thence down the middle of the Willamette river, to the section line between sections number twenty-three and twenty-six, in township one south, range one east; thence east, on section lines, to the summit of the Cascade mountains ; thence northerly, on a right line, to the middle of the Columbia river at the foot of the Cascade Falls; thence down the middle of the main channel of said river to the place of beginning." (Special Laws of 1854-5, page 29). Polk County. "Commencing at the southeast corner of Yamhill district, thence along the south line of the same to the Pacific ocean ; thence along the coast of the ocean to the line dividing Cali- fornia and Oregon; thence east along said line to the line dividing Champoeg and Yamhill districts, before Polk district was stricken off ; thence down the middle of the main channel of Willamette river to the place of commencement." (General and Special Laws of 1843-9, P a £ e 3&)78 Frederick V. Holman Sherman County. "Beginning at a point in the center of the main channel of the Columbia river, opposite the mouth of John Day river; thence up the middle of the main channel of said John Day river to the south line of township 2 south where it crosses the said John Day river ; thence west along the said south line of township 2 south to the middle of the Deschutes river ; thence down the center of the main channel of said river to a point in the center of the main channel of the Columbia river opposite to the mouth of the Deschutes river ; thence up the middle of the main channel of said Columbia river to the place of beginning." (General Laws of 1889, page 82). Tillamook County. "All that portion of Yamhill and Clatsop counties, em- braced within the following boundaries, to wit: commencing at a range of hills near the Pacific ocean, north of the Nehalem river, known as Saddle mountains, thence east, following the summit of said range of hills to the summit of the Coast range of mountains, thence south following the summit of the said Coast range of mountains, to the southern boundary of Polk county, thence due west to the Pacific ocean, thence along the sea shore to the place of beginning." (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 6). Umatilla County. "All that portion of Wasco county, beginning in the middle of the channel of the Columbia river opposite the mouth of Willow creek, thence up the middle of the channel of said river to the point where the 46th parallel of latitude crosses said river; thence east along said parallel to the summit of the Blue mountains; thence southwest along the summit of said mountain to the divide between the middle and south fork of John Day's river; thence northwest along said divide to its intersection with the south fork of John Day's river; History of the Counties of Oregon 79 thence down the channel of said river to its junction with the north fork of said river ; and from thence northerly along the ridge dividing the waters of John Day's and Willow creek to the place of beginning." (General Laws of 1862, page 91). Union County. "All that portion of Baker county, commencing at a point where the 46th parallel of latitude crosses the summit of the Blue mountains ; thence east along said line to its intersection with Snake river; thence up the middle of the channel of said river to the mouth of Powder river; thence up the middle of the channel of said river to the mouth of the North fork of the same; thence up the main channel of the said North Powder river to its source ; thence west to a point intersecting the east boundary line of Umatilla county ; thence northerly along said line to the place of beginning." (Special Laws of 1864, page 37). Wallowa County. "Commencing at the northeast corner of the State of Ore- gon on Snake river and thence west on the State line to where it intersects the Grand Ronde river ; thence in a southwesterly direction up the center of said Grand Ronde river to the mouth of the Wallowa river; thence in a southwesterly direc- tion up the center of said Wallowa river to the mouth of the Minum river; thence in a southerly and easterly direction up the center of said Minum river to its source on the summit of the Powder river mountains ; thence following said summit or divide of the Powder river mountains in an easterly direc- tion to a point about twenty miles due west from Snake river ; thence due east to what is known as Limestone Point on the east line of the State of Oregon; thence north following said east line of the State of Oregon to the place of beginning." (General Laws of 1887, page 142). 8o Frederick V. Holman Wasco County. "Commencing at the Cascades of the Columbia river, thence running up said river to the point where the southern shore of said river is intersected by the southern boundary of Washington territory, thence east along said boundary to the eastern boundary of Oregon territory, thence southerly along the eastern boundary of said territory to the southern boundary of the same, thence west along said southern boundary to the Cascade mountains, thence northerly along said range of mountains to the place of beginning." (Special Laws of 1853-4, page 26). Washington County. Originally named Twality, with the following description: "First district, to be called the Twality District, comprising all the country south of the northern boundary line of the United States, west of the Willamette, or Multnomah River, north of the Yamhill River, and east of the Pacific Ocean." "Approved by the people, July 5th, 1843." ("Oregon Archives," page 26). The name was changed to Washington by the Territorial Legislature, September 3, 1849, D Y an Act which provided : "The name of the county commonly called 'Twality* or Talatine' be and the same is hereby changed to Washington*" (See Local Laws of 1 850-1, page 54). Wheeler County. "Beginning at the northwest corner of township thirteen south, of range twenty east, Willamette meridian, and running thence south on range line between ranges nineteen and twenty east, three miles, by the government survey; thence east on the section lines to the east boundary of range twenty- two east; thence south on said east boundary three miles to the southeast corner of township thirteen south, of range twenty-two east; thence east on the south boundary of township thirteen south to the east boundary of range twenty-three east; thence south on the said east boundary of range twenty-three east to the south boundary of township fourteen south; thence east on said south boundary to the east boundary of range twenty-five east; thence north on said range line between ranges twenty-five and twenty-six east to the north boundary of Grant county; thence west on the north boundary of Grant county to the east boundary of range twenty-four east; thence north on the said east boundary to a point which is one mile south of the first standard parallel south; thence west along the section lines one mile south of said first standard parallel south to the center of the main channel of the John Day's river; thence up the center of the main channel of the said John Day's river to a point where it is crossed by the west boundary of range twenty east; thence south on said west boundary of range twenty east to the place of beginning." (General Laws of 1899, page 51).


Yamhill District Or County.

"Second district, to be called the Yamhill District, embracing all the country west of the Willamette, or Multnomah, River and a supposed line running north and south from said river, south of the Yamhill River to the parallel of 42° north latitude, or the boundary line of the United States and California, and east of the Pacific Ocean." ("Oregon Archives", page 26).