Oregon Historical Quarterly/Volume 26/The Newspapers of Oregon, 1846-1870

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THE NEWSPAPERS OF OREGON 1846-1870

Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the Degree of Master of Arts at Mills College, 1925.

The subject of this bibliography was chosen at the suggestion of Professor Edward Meany and Charles W. Smith, Associate Librarian, both of the University of Washington. Miss Nellie Pipes and Mr. George H. Himes, of the Oregon Historical Society, kindly allowed me to use the files and manuscripts in the Oregon Historical Society Library. Miss Pipes was kind enough to examine the manuscript. The resources of the Portland Public Library and the Bancroft Historical Library were also available.

By Flora Belle Ludington

Newspapers play a two-fold role in the making and writing of history. Their first part is that of influence; influence often of one man, the editor, unmeasurable in many communities. A single strong, active and tireless editor may control the political life of numbers of citizens. Encouragement is given to new enterprises, suggestions are made for needed improvements and lines of investment or development. Such was the case in the early years of American occupation in Oregon Territory.

The period between frontier and civilization is always an interesting one. The Oregon Sepectator, coming in February, 1846, six months before the Alta Californian, indicates to some slight degree the relative importance of these two frontier regions. M. P. Deady accredits Oregon City with being the first metropolis on the Pacific Coast[1] but the spectacular growth of California during the gold days detracts from the period when their achievements were more nearly alike. After 1848, California drew not only the eastern immigration but also the citizens of Oregon, promising them greater and more rapid economic returns than did the more stable northern community. Pioneer journals invariably denote a certain group feeling and desire for progress and expression. The Oregon Printing Association was effected to promote the interests of American settlers in Oregon. Newspaper editors had to be original and resourceful under early conditions. Ships arrived from the Sandwich Islands and the States with mail and merchandise at six month intervals. Daily telegraphic communication established by the Oregonian in 1864 with San Francisco was a great feat. Suppression of six papers, during the Civil War for disloyalty to the government, is in itself evidence of an interesting condition and of editors who were fearless of consequences. The influence of Asahel Bush of the Oregon Statesman can still be felt today. He dominated the strong Democratic party for a decade, making and unmaking politicians at will. Later the Oregonian and its editors held sway with possibly less political, but greater material results, by the sponsoring of new industries.

The other part of the dual role of newspapers concerns historians to an apparently increasing degree. The methodology of historical research has not long countenanced the use of newspapers. Lucy Salmon, in the introduction to her valuable study of The Newspaper and the Historian, traces the growth of the use of papers in this connection. She says, "During the forty years that have elapsed since the appearance of the first volume of McMaster's History of the People of the United States from the Revolution to the Civil War, the newspaper has become a familiar source, although its legitimacy as such does not even yet pass unquestioned. The historian has found much to commend in the use of periodical and even ephemeral literature in his study of the past, but during this period he has attached an ever-increasing importance to the reliability of the material he uses He recognizes the manifest usefulness that the newspaper might have, yet he hesitates to accept a form of material the authoritativeness of which has not been thoroughly established."[2]

The need for weighing carefully newspaper evidence is nowhere more aptly illustrated than in Bancroft's History of Oregon. Here the historian had at his disposal a rich collection of newspaper material. That he appreciated its value is shown by the collection in his library, now housed at the University of California. Walter C. Woodward made better use of newspapers in his Political Parties in Oregon, however, he has narrowed his field to such an extent that the corresponding economic development is scarcely noticed. The growth of the "Oregon system"—the initiative, the referendum, the recall and the preferential primary—doubtless had its ground work laid during the period covered in this bibliography.

To justly reconstruct the life of any time, the historian must examine not only the official documents and the autographic records of his period but also any other contemporary material. Newspapers are a mirror of the life of the times—even the study of advertisements may be profitable. For instance, in Oregon, the arrival of every boat bringing merchandise had its echo in the advertisements offering these wares to waiting households. Woodward says, "It is only by a study of the newspapers of the period (1852) that one can appreciate the party rancor that by this time existed. Epithets unprintable, now, were hurled back and forth as freely as if they were the mere social amenities of the day."[3]

James Ford Rhodes gives sound advice when he says, "The duty of the historian is not to decide if the newspapers are as good as they ought to be but to measure their influence on the present and to recognize their importance as an ample and contemporary record of the past."[4]

Another indication of the growing appreciation of newspapers in this connection may be seen in the large collections in the Widener Library at Harvard University, the American Antiquarian Library at Worcester, the Clement Historical Library at the University of Michigan and many others. It is a common practice of libraries to index daily, the outstanding local papers for items of future community historical interest. Catalogs of such collections as these are mentioned and bibliographies of newspapers are another step on the way.

The two articles by Mr. George H. Himes are the only important notices of Oregon newspapers.[5] This compilation attempts to present a survey, of one type of material that exists for study of this period in Oregon history. A bibliography of some sort or other is the foundation of all historical writing. This work is more complete now than would be possible in twenty or even ten years, for each year marks the destruction of these valuable records, whether they are sold as waste paper or devastated by fire, such as the one in Astoria in December, 1922. Inaccuracies are doubtless present, for files of newspapers are everywhere scattered and incomplete. Further research may disclose more information, especially is this true of papers of Eastern Oregon. However, the compiler hopes that she may to some small degree stimulate the collection and preservation of this valuable source material. Newspapers reach their first importance under such conditions as those of Oregon, where it is necessary for the historian to rely upon the Oregon Spectator for accounts of early territorial legislation.


ALBANY

Inquirer. This was the name used by the Oregon Democrat after its purchase in February, 1861, by W. G . Haley and A. L. Stinson. The Inquirer was the first of several papers suppressed for disloyalty to the government. Suppression took place in the spring of 1862 when P. J. Malone was editor.[6] The paper was revived and the name, Oregon Democrat, resumed in February, 1863.

Journal. Established March 12, 1863. A weekly Republican paper published by the Albany Publishing Company of which Messrs. T . Monteith, J. H. Foster, A. Hanson, H. M . Brown and H. N. George were directors. William McPherson seems to have been the editor in August, 1866, when he moved to Salem. The States Rights Democrat of August 25, 1866, carries this notice, "The last Albany Journal contains the editor's valedictory. He is going to Salem and will there publish the American Union. He says that the law requires the State Printer to reside in Salem, the capital. That is one reason that he leaves Albany. But there are other reasons he says, and they are of a pecuniary character. 'The dictates of which are as premptory as the words of law.' He says that the Albany Journal business has been one yielding no remuneration. Personally we wish McPherson and Morgan success but politically disaster and defeat at all time." The paper revived in April, 1867, when operations began under the management of William Pickett and Company. In March, 1868, it was declared bankrupt and on September 12, 1868, the Albany Register appeared.

Oregon Democrat. First published November 18, 1859, by Delazon Smith and his brother-in-law, Jesse M. Shepherd. Smith acted as editor until his death November 18, 1860. Shepherd * continued the paper until February, 1861, when it passed into the hands of W. G. Haley and A. L. Stinson. Smith, during his brief editorship, used the paper in making war upon the Salem Clique and Joseph Lane. The name was changed to the Inquirer by Haley and Stinson. P. J. Malone acted as editor until it was excluded from the mails by order of General Wright, the reason given by the authorities was its opposition to the conduct of the war. Malone then went to Corvallis where he continued his fight against Bush and the Statesman thru the agency of the Union.

Publication was again allowed in February, 1863, under the name of the Oregon State Democrat, with James O'Meara as editor. This journal must have been soon suppressed for O'Meara is found as reviving the Eugene Register in May of the same year.

The paper was published again August 1, 1865, when O'Meara established the States Rights Democrat. In July, 1866, the publication was taken over by H. M. Abbott, Mart V. Brown and John Travers, with the latter retiring in December. During this winter, 1866-67, Spalding's recollections of the Whitman Mission occupied a prominent place in the paper. In May, 1869, Abbott went to Eastern Oregon to establish the Bedrock Democrat, selling his interest to C. B. Bellinger. Bellinger left the firm July 22, 1870, to go to Portland to practice law. Later gentlemen connected with the paper were C. H. Stewart, T. J. Stites and F. P. Nutting. This journal is still being published.

States Rights Democrat see Oregon Democrat.

Register. Established by Collins Van Cleve, as editor and publisher, September 12, 1868, using the material of the old Albany Journal. Republican in politics.


ASTORIA

Marine Gazette. A weekly Republican paper started by H. R. Kincaid in August, 1864. W. W . Parker became editor in the next August. W. L. Adams, the vitriolic editor of the Argus, was associated with the Marine Gazette when he was living in Astoria, having been appointed as collector of customs by the Lincoln administration. The Gazette used the type first provided for the Spectator and printed in its pages Gray's History of Oregon.


BAKER

Bedrock Democrat. Established by L. L. Baker and M. H. Abbott, of the Oregon Democrat, in 1869.


COOS BAY

Bumble Bee. Republican paper of short duration, published in 1869.


CORVALLIS

Corvallis Gazette. First Benton County Republican paper started in 1862. The editor was T. B. Odeneal who had been won to the party by Lincoln. W. D . Carter was editor in March, 1869.

Democratic Crisis. Formerly the Occidental Messenger but was first issued under this title February 2, 1859. T. B. Odeneal, the editor, traded this paper for J. H . Slater's store resulting in the publication of the Oregon Weekly Union.

Frontier Sentinel. "Published to give 'an ardent and unwavering support in favor of the introduction of slavery in Oregon,' publisher L. P. Hall, material from the office of the Expositor, another journal whose usefulness had expired."[7] Bancroft is doubtless right in asking if this and the Occidental Messenger are not one.

Occidental Messenger. Financed in June, 1857, by J. C. Avery, the founder of Corvallis, and known as "Avery's Ox." For editor Avery imported L. P. Hall and chose as compositors Stephen Gillis and Fred Russ. Hall resigned to be followed by T. B. Odeneal, who later issued the Democratic Crisis. The Messenger was the ne plus ultra of slavery propaganda in Oregon. A more radical vehement and defiant advocate of slavery could not be found in North Carolina.

Oregon Statesman. Located in Corvallis for a few months in 1855 when this city was the seat of the government. Soon returned to Salem.

Oregon Weekly Union. The successor of the Occidental Messenger and the Democratic Crisis. Changed to this name when James H. Slater became editor and owner. The Union was an Anti-Clique organ but also exposed the danger of Sewardism and the revolutionary tendencies of Republicanism. Its advocacy of Breckinridge and Lane was energetic and bold. After the Lincoln election Slater advised that Oregon take a neutral ground and vowed, May 18, 1861, unalterable opposition to any policy which looked toward waging war of subjugation in the South. After the firing of Fort Sumpter the Union had a strong secession odor, being called the "Onion" by Bush of the Statesman. Naturally it was one of the journals suppressed by the government in 1863.

Willamette Valley Mercury. Started by J. H . Upton in August, 1868.


DALLAS

Polk County Itemizer. Weekly independent paper started in 1866.

Polk County Signal. The States Rights Democrat of May 28,1868, under the heading of the Salem Chronicle notes, "In the last number of this paper the editor announces that he will take his leave of Salem Journalism. He will go to Dallas where he will soon issue the Signal." The paper expired in the spring of 1869.

Times. Published in 1869.


EMPIRE CITY

Monthly Guide. Established in October, 1870. Changed to the Coos Bay News March, 1873.


EOLA

Religious Expositor. A Baptist weekly, Democratic in politics that was published on May 6, 1856, by C. M . Mattoon. The paper was moved to Corvallis July 19,1856, and was issued there until its decease on October 11th.


EUGENE

Democratic Herald. Started in March, 1859, by Alexander Blakely, who continued it for only one year. The paper was resumed by Anthony Noltner but was soon debarred from the mails by order of the government. Publication was continued and delivery made by private conveyance. From March, 1862, until its suppression in September, 1862, it wore the title of the Democratic Register and in November became the Review.

Democratic Register. The name used by the Democratic Herald from March 15 to September 20, 1862. Owned by Noltner and edited by C. H. (Joaquin) Miller. The last number carried this notice, "Subscribers of the Register will be furnished the Review in its place as the the circulation of that paper is prohibited by order of General Wright, military ruler of this coast."

Democratic Review. Continued the Democratic Register and hoisted a defiantly Democratic flag in January, 1863, tho in November, when it started, it had promised to be neutral. Joaquin Miller, the editor, resigned February 14, 1863, so the paper was continued by Anthony Noltner, its owner, until James O'Meara was appointed editor in April. September 16, 1865, was its last issue when it was combined with the Washington Democrat and the Arena to be published in Salem under the title of Democratic Review by Noltner, Hicks and Bellinger.

Guard. Began publication in March, 1867, sponsored by J. B. Alexander who sold it after one year to George J. Buys and A. Fitzroy. Fitzroy withdrew in December, 1869. Buys controlled the paper until November 2, 1877. In 1878 it was sold by Alexander Bros, to Ira and John R. Campbell.

Herald of Reform. Universalist paper issued by Rev. A. C. Edmunds in January, 1863. He announced that the paper was "devoted to the advance of Universalism I am set for the defense of the gospel and to reprove the pious deceiver." Was first published with the title the Union Crusader.

News. Democratic campaign paper started by J. B. Alexander in March and discontinued in November, 1856, after the election.

Oregon State Journal. Established on March 12, 1864, by H. R. Kincaid, Joel Ware and William Thompson, using the plant not needed after the consolidation of the Argus and the Statesman. Thompson sold out to the other two and eventually (Feb. 14, 1865) Kincaid came into sole control. Impartial in spirit, open to fair discussion and general topics, in politics Republican, this journal ran for over forty-five years under Kincaid's management.

Pacific Journal. Noted in the Oregonian of July 17, 1858. A neutral paper purchased by B. J. Pengra who used the plant for the People's Press.

People's Press. Republican paper started in 1858 by B. J. Pengra, formed out of the material of the Pacific Journal.

State Republican. Ran from January 1, 1862 until March 12, 1864. Issued by H. Shaw and Davis using the plant of the defunct People's Press. In September, H. R. Kincaid announced that J. M . Gale would be the editor and the motto would be, "The struggle of today is not altogether for today, it is for the vast future also." The Argus and the Republican passed into the hands of the company that bought the Statesman. The Republican ceased in March, 1864, to be followed by the Oregon State Journal.

Union Crusader. Issued in October, 1862, by Rev. A. C . Edmunds, but soon to become the Herald of Reform.


FOREST GROVE

Forest Grove Monthly. Independent paper first issued in June, 1864.


JACKSONVILLE

Civilian. Built on the ruins of the Gazette in March, 1862, by D. W. Douthitt. A Democratic campaign sheet published in the interests of the National Democratic party in opposition to the regular Democratic party.

Democratic News. Rose from the ruins of the Reveille May 1, 1869, published by P. D. Hull and Charles Nickell. Destroyed by fire in 1872 and rebuilt as the Democratic Times.

Herald. Messrs. William J. Beggs and B. J. Burns started this "neat and democratic journal" August 1, 1857. Burns retired in November. The Herald was a rabid slavery advocate. Its plant was used for the Southern Oregon Gazette in 1861.

Oregon Intelligencer. W . G. T'Vault took over the Civilian office in November, 1862, and ushered the Intelligencer into the world saying, "The Constitution of the United States shall be our political platform." The Intelligencer was frankly a secession paper. Publication ceased late in 1864.

Oregon Reporter. Started with Patrick J. Malone as editor in January, 1865, from the remains of the Intelligencer. Malone retired at the end of volume one. Frank R. Stuart, his successor, remained until 1867 when W. W. Fidler associated with him and changed the name to the Southern Oregon Press.

Oregon Sentinel, see Table Rock Sentinel.

Reveille. The Southern Oregon Press started publication under this name in September, 1867.

Southern Oregon Gazette. James O'Meara and Pomeroy took the plant of the Herald on August 14, 1861, and began publishing this intensely Democratic sheet. It was so bitter and disloyal to the government that in a few months it was refused the privilege of the U. S. mail and died a violent death.

Southern Oregon Press. Formerly the Oregon Reporter, but published under this title from January 5th until August 21, 1867. Continued by the Reveille.

Table Rock Sentinel. Started publication on November 24, 1855, with W. G. T'Vault as editor and proprietor, asserting that this paper was "Independent on all subjects and devoted to the best interests of Southern Oregon." Actually it was bluntly and flatly committed to Oregon Democracy and the Southern cause. T'Vault was sole owner until 1858 when he associated with W. G. Robinson and the name changed to the Oregon Sentinel. In the fall of 1859 the paper came into the hands of James O'Meara, editor, and W. B. Treanor, owner, the latter retiring in less than a year, and O'Meara abandoning it in May, 1861. Under the O'Meara regime the sentiments of the paper were so radical at times that loyal citizens refused it patronage. Henry Denlinger and William H. Hand took over the paper from O'Meara, Hand retiring January 25, 1862, leaving Denlinger as sole owner. The paper now became uncompromisingly a Union paper with Orange Jacobs as editor. In July, 1864, it passed over to S. F. McDowell who owned it for fourteen years, employing various Republican editors.


KLAMATH

Reveille. Noted in the Daily Evening Bulletin of July 23, 1868.


LAFAYETTE

Courier. Started by Jasper W. Johnson in 1865. J. H. Upton was connected with this paper in 1869 when its plant was used to publish the Pacific Blade in McMinnville.


LA GRANDE

Blue Mountain Times. The first paper in this region, started publication April 18, 1868, by Baker, Coggan and Company. Republican in politics.

Grande Ronde Sentinel. Due to delay in freight shipments the Democrats were unable to print the first number of this paper until their Republican rivals issued the Times. Started in May, 1868, by Jeffrey and McComas.[8]


McMINNVILLE

McMinnville Reporter. A weekly Republican paper published in January, 1870.

Pacific Blade. The Salem Daily Statesman of October 14, 1860, noted the new publication as follows, "Contains a fair amount of well assorted reading matter and many items of local interest. McPherson, being state printer, claims that all estray notices should be by law published in his paper." Thomas Handley was one time editor.


MILWAUKIE

Western Star. First issued by Lot Whitcomb November 21, 1850, with John Orvis Waterman and William Davis Carter on the staff. The Star was more outspoken and more Democratic than the Statesman. The Spectator of December 11, 1850, says, "The paper comes out flat footed Democratic. It said 'in politics we are Democratic and shall be governed by the principles of Jeffersonian Democracy, advocating measures not men'." In the campaign of 1851 it entered into the conflict while the Statesman held back. The correspondence of McLoughlin, Wyeth and Thurston, published in the spring of 1851, is of lasting historical interest. In June, 1851, the plant was moved to Portland and on the 5th the paper came out under the name of the Oregon Weekly Times.


MONMOUTH

Christian Messenger. First issued October, 1870, under the auspices of the Christian Church. Ran until about 1887.


OREGON CITY

Argus. Republican paper started April 21, 1855, by W. L. Adams, using the plant of the Spectator. This was the first distinctly Republican paper issued in Oregon. Adams was a militant Campbellite preacher who mercilessly caricatured the leading Democrats of the day, among them, Asahel Bush of the Statesman, John Orvis Waterman of the Oregon Weekly Times, and General Joseph Lane. His ruthless sarcasm, his uncompromising dogmatism and his ability to coin cutting descriptive adjectives made him a power in Oregon politics. The Argus came out especially strong in its advocacy of temperance. This journal was referred to as the "Air-Goose" by "Ass-of-Hell" Bush of the Statesman. In 1859 David W. Craig became proprietor, though Adams was retained as editor until 1863 when he was appointed collector of customs as a reward for his diligent advocacy of Lincoln, who had carried Oregon by a small majority. The Argus consolidated with the Eugene State Republican in May, 1863, and these two journals finally passed into the hands of the owners of the Statesman, A. Bush and J. W. Nesmith. It was continued under the name of the Statesman, the political status of that organ having changed.

Free Press. The second paper published in Oregon. George Law Curry resigned his editorial position on the Spectator early in 1848 due to the censorship that was being exercised over his editorials by the Printing Association. He bought type from the Catholic missionaries and had a rude press made. The first issue came out in March, 1848, with the motto—

"Here shall the Press the people's rights maintain,
Unawed by influence, unbribed by gain."

The paper stopped in October because of the rush of the subscribers to the California mines.

Oregon City Enterprise. Started publication on October 27, 1866, with D. C. Ireland as editor and proprietor. Noltner and Slater purchased it in 1869 or '70 and ran it until about 1875.

Spectator. The first paper on the Pacific Coast as well as in Oregon, outdating the first California paper, the Alta Californian, by six months and ten days. It was first issued in Oregon City Thursday, February 5, 1846. The Spectator was sponsored by the Oregon Printing Association organized with W. G. T'Vault as president, J. W. Nesmith, vice-president, John P. Brooks, secretary, George Abernethy, treasurer, Robert Newell, John E. Long, John H. Couch, directors. The plant was secured in New York thru the instrumentality of Governor George Abernethy, the acting treasurer. The Constitution of the Association read in part:

"In order to promote science, temperance, morality, and general intelligence; to establish a printing press; to publish a monthly, semi-monthly or weekly paper in Oregon—the undersigned do hereby associate ourselves together in a body, to be governed by such rules and regulations as shall from time to time be adopted by a majority of the stockholders of this compact in a regularly called and properly notified meeting."

The Articles of the Compact dealt with the method of doing business but Article VIII related to the editorial policy.

"The press owned by or in connection with association shall never be used by any party for the purpose of propagating sectarian principles or doctrine, nor for the discussion of exclusive party politics."

Provision was made for altering any article of the compact except this one. Shares of stock were $10 each.

The editor of the Spectator was Col. W. G. T'Vault, then the postmaster general of the Provisional Government. The association had wanted H. A. G. Lee as editor but he demanded a $600 salary, while T'Vault consented to serve for $300 a year. He set forth the attitude in a significant salutatory.


TO THE PUBLIC

"The printing press, type and materials are owned by the Oregon Printing Association and that association has adopted a Constitution to govern the concerns of the Association as well as the publishing of the newspaper; consequently the Spectator will have to keep within the pale of that Constitution, otherwise it violates the commands of its owners. A large majority of the citizens of Oregon are emigrants from the United States and for the last twenty years politics have there been the order of the day Hence it is to be presumed that a portion of the citizens of Oregon have brought with them their views of policy, entertained while residing in the United States. It might also be expected that the Oregon Spectator would be a political paper; but reason and good sense agree differently. Situated as we are—remote from the civilized settlements of the United States, and at this time having a protection by the Provisional Government of Oregon and having but one interest, the welfare of Oregon and the citizens unanimously .... it would be bad policy to break open old wounds in so doing to create new ones, to discuss politics in the columns of the Spectatornotwithstanding we are now, as we have always been, and ever shall be, a Democrat of the Jeffersonian School."[9]

T'Vault's career as the Spectator's editor was a short one—his violent political antagonism could not be successfully curbed even by Article VIII of the Compact. In his valedictory, April 2, 1846, he points out that there are two distinct parties in Oregon—and the difficulty of editing, under these conditions, a non-partisan paper. The real mission of the Spectator was probably to pursue the Hudson's Bay Company and T'Vault's two parties were probably the American merchants and the British merchants.

The new editor, H. A. G. Lee, the first choice as editor, explained that he would discuss politics as a science of government but not effervescent partyism. (April 16, 1846.) On this date there were a hundred and fifty-five subscribers but the new editor says there should be five hundred with the existing population. On August 6, 1846, "The editor (H. A. G. Lee) respectfully tenders his thanks to the Board of Directors for the privilege of terminating his services as editor with the present number of the Spectator. He gladly avails himself of the opportunity thus afforded him of returning to more humble—far more pleasant duties of a laboring mechanic, with a happy consciousness of having done the best that the circumstances allowed." Lee's difficulty with the Printing Association came over some articles of his regarding the attitude of the American merchants toward the colonists.

The next few numbers were issued without any apparent editor but were doubtless directed by the printer John Fleming. Then, George L. Curry, newly arrived from St. Louis, took over the paper and endeavored to give it a "firm and consistent American tone." Curry was able to retain his position longer than any of his predecessors but early in 1848 he resigned because of the censorship exercised over his editorials. In his final adieu he says he refused to edit a one man paper (referring to Gov. Abernethy) edited in that man's interest, as demanded; hence his dismissal. He strongly deprecates the establishment of a censorship of the press in Oregon.[10]

For one year, February, 1848, to February, 1849, Aaron E. Wait was editor of the Spectator. That paper was issued on September 7, 1848, suspended, and then resumed October 12, 1848, explaining, "That 'gold fever', which has swept about 3,000 of the officers, lawyers, physicians, farmers and mechanics from the plains of Oregon into the mines of California, took away our printer also—hence the temporary non-appearance of the Spectator." Wait's connection with the Spectator ceased February 22, 1849, and the paper was edited in a desultory and irregular sort of fashion until October 4, 1849, when it appeared with Rev. Wilson Blain as editor and George B. Goudy as printer. On April 18, 1850, Robert Moore appears as owner with Blain as editor, but in September D. J . Schnebly appears as editor and announces that hereafter the Spectator will be a weekly at $7 per annum.

Beginning with volume six, number one, September 9, 1851, Schnebly appears as owner, and C. P. Culver, associate editor after November. By February of 1852 the Spectator had become a distinctly political journal with Whig tendencies. In March, 1852, it suspended, not to appear again until August, 1853. It gradually grew weaker and was sold to C. L. Goodrich in March, 1854, and was permanently suspended by him in March, 1855.

This, the first newspaper on the Coast was not a great factor in shaping the political destiny of Oregon Territory. The Spectator had been published under all the difficulties of the frontier. Mail communication and newspaper exchange was seldom possible, papers from the States arrived but once a year in 1846 and '47, the papers finally issued in California were slow and late in coming, so the early editors of this pioneer paper had to be versatile and resourceful. The Spectator had started in the days when Oregon City was the first town of the territory and lived to see it dwindle to relative unimportance.

Statesman. Started in Oregon City but moved to the growing town of Salem. "I get very little patronage in Oregon City. I will give a premium on the best essay on prejudice. But Oregon City is not all of Oregon."[11]


PORTLAND

Campaign Herald, see Oregon Herald.

Catholic Sentinel. Issued in 1869 or 1870 with the Rev. J. F. Furens as editor, succeeded by James R. Wiley and following him M. G. Munly.

Daily Advertiser. Alonzo Leland announced a daily paper "got up as the Standard was, to crush out the Salem Clique." This pro-slavery anti-Bush organ first appeared May 31, 1859, and was the second daily of Portland. A daily edition of 3,000 copies was issued "on the arrival of each and every eastern mail or steamer with files of California and Eastern news." Leland was the editor for only a short time, to be followed by S. J. McCormick. George L. Curry became connected with the paper January 1, 1861, and a weekly as well as a daily issue was published. The Advertiser was among those papers suppressed by the government in 1862.

Daily Evening Tribune. First issued by Collins Van Cleve and Ward Latta in the old Times office, January 16, 1865. After a short and vigorous existence of only a month it expired for want of financial support.

Daily News. The first daily in Oregon established April 18, 1859, by Alonzo Leland in connection with the S. A. English and W. B. Taylor Company, publishers. It very shortly passed into the editorial hands of E. D. Shattuck and later into those of W. D . Carter. The News then became an independent weekly which had a brief existence. The plant was eventually moved to Salem.

Democratic Standard. First issued July 19, 1854, by Alonzo Leland. The paper was used to express Leland's doubts as to the advisability of asking for statehood. His stand on this question was referred to by the Statesman as the "Iscariotism of the Standard. "Though Democratic, the Standard did not favor slavery. In 1858 the Standard changed hands and was edited by James O'Meara. It suspended publication January 4, 1859, until February of the same year when it again appeared with O'Meara as editor. Not long after, the press was moved to Eugene.

Deutsche Zeitung. The first German language paper in Portland, edited by A. A. Landenberger from its beginning in 1867 to its close in 1884.

Evening Bulletin. An independent paper started by J. F . Atkinson January 6, 1868.

Evening Call. Being published January, 1870.

Evening Commercial. A daily independent journal first issued August 11, 1868, with M. P. Bull editor.

Franklin Advertiser. A semi-weekly published for a short time by S. J. McCormick.

Metropolis Herald. A daily paper mentioned in the Oregonian of August 11,1855.

North Pacific Rural Spirit. Established in 1869, devoted to agriculture, household economy, dairy, poultry and the turf. W. W. Baker, the editor, was followed by M. D. Wisdom after the former's death. In 1878 it merged with the Willamette Farmer.

Northern Monthly. A magazine of literature, civil and military affairs. March to December, 1864.

Oregon Churchman. An Episcopal journal started in 1861.

Oregon Farmer. A semi-monthly journal for Oregon and Washington territory devoted to agriculture, horticulture, mechanics, literature and news. Published by W. B. Taylor Company, edited by Albert G. Walling. Ran from August, 1858, until February 1, 1863.

Oregon Herald. The first issue, dated March 17, 1866, was sponsored by H. M . Abbott and N. L. Butler. Butler went out in May, but Abbott continued until June 9th. The paper was then issued by the Oregon Herald Company, a joint stock company of Democratic politicians with A. E . Wait as president and T. Patterson, secretary. Beriah Brown, formerly of the San Francisco Democratic press, was chosen as editor. Brown edited the Herald in 1866, when it was the only advocate in Oregon of the Johnson administration.

The company dissolved November 26, 1868, W. Weatherford became publisher and Brown retired as editor on December 1st. Sylvester Pennoyer succeeded Brown and later bought the paper, selling it to Patterson and Company, July 1, 1869. It was continued by Eugene Semple as editor until 1871, when at its sale, Pittock, of the Oregonian, bought it.

Oregon Monthly Magazine. The pioneer magazine of the Pacific issued January, 1852, by S. J . McCormick. It was "An entertaining miscellany devoted to useful knowledge and general information, 32 pages of well selected reading matter—a large portion of which is written by the editor, S. J . McCormick, upon subjects of interest and display both ability and research."[12]

Oregon News Budget. Noted in the Salem Unionist September 3, 1869. "It is evidently intended as an advertising medium and made very interesting and acceptable."

Oregon Weekly Times. In May, 1851, John Orvis Waterman and William Davis Carter moved the plant of the Western Star of Milwaukie to Portland and changed its name to the Times. By June, 1853, Carter had sold to Waterman, who continued the journal until May 29, 1854. It was then sold to Carter and R. D. Austin, but Waterman was retained by them as editor until June 6, 1857. Then came E. C . Hibben, whom Dryer, of the Oregonian, said had been imported from the East to edit the Times as a pro-slavery organ. The Times was pronounced Democratic in tone and was even recognized by the Democratic convention of 1857—"that this convention recognizes the Portland Times as Democratic and its editor as a worthy man." Hibben was editor only until December, 1858. The following May, Carter sold to Austin who continued the paper, starting a daily issue December 18, 1860. At this time its editor, Alonzo Leland, announced, "We do not always expect to be brilliant and abounding in thought which will awaken the best energy of our readers. —But we promise to treat all questions discussed with candor and fairness, and to strive to be equal in interest to the temperature of the public mind." Other editors before its suspension in 1864 were Henry Shipley, A. S . Gould, W. N. Walter and W. Lair Hill.

Oregonian. In June, 1850, W. W. Chapman and Stephen Coffin secured in California Thomas J. Dryer, then city editor of the California Courier, for the publication of a paper in the growing village of Portland. A second hand plant was secured from the Alta Californian and the first copy of the Oregonian was issued December 4, 1850, announcing allegiance to the "present administration and all the principles of the great Whig party." Dryer proved to be an excellent speaker, and an aggressive and fearless writer well suited for pioneer journalism. A new plant was secured by April, the old press being sent to the Puget Sound where it was used for the Columbian, the first paper north of the Columbia river.. With the acquisition of the new plant the Oregonian was well under way.

The Democratic party was fairly well organized by 1853 through the tireless agency of Asahel Bush—the Oregonian, though nominally non-partisan in 1851 saw that the Whigs must unite. This course was urged and brought from Bush in the Statesman of July 4, 1853, "The Sewer man, (Dryer), is in favor of organizing the Whig party. Greeley of the N. Y. Tribune says that the Whig party is dead in the states. But, like all animals of the reptile order it dies in the extremities last; and him of the Sewer the Oregonian is the last agonizing knot of the tail." Dryer pushed the organization of the Whig party week after week until he effected unity. He had one standard of measurement—political opinion. Everything savoring of Whiggery was good—anything tainted with Democracy was vile. The papers were full of politics and personal abuse based on political conduct— the Oregonian and the Statesman representing the most marked antagonism. The Oregonian did not openly ally itself with the Republican cause, but by 1856 it had taken up the issue against slavery. It had had as little sympathy with Abolitionism as the Statesman, but became aroused by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill. In 1854, '55 and '56 the Oregonian opposed statehood but late in 1856 Dryer turned squarely around and began advocating state organization. In his own words, "If we are to have the institution of slavery fastened upon us here, we desire the people resident in Oregon do it and not the will and power of a few politicians in Washington City. If the power of the regular Army is to be used to crush out freedom in the territories ... we had better throw off our vassalage and become a state at once."[13] This change in policy on the part of Dryer made it possible for the Daily Advertiser to say December 5, 1860, "Verily consistency is a jewel that does not shine in the Oregonian's record. By all other considerations let the adopted German citizens of Multnomah remember the viturperative abuse the Oregonian has heaped on them heretofore, and pay off the old score by voting against T. J. Dryer and W. T. Watkins, the Republican free-soil-nigger-loving-know-nothing-German-hating candidates for Presidential electors."

In a few weeks the same journal announced, December 26, 1860, "The Oregonian has become the property of Mr. Henry Pittock, who contemplates issuing a daily paper in connection with his weekly about the first of January next. Mr. Dryer retains his position as editor."

H. L. Pittock had worked on the Oregonian in a minor capacity since November, 1853, he and Elisha Treat Gunn had been admitted to partnership with Dryer in November, 1856. On November 20, 1858, they withdrew until November 24, 1860, when Mr. Dryer transferred his interest to Mr. Pittock, retaining editorial control until January 12, 1861. In recognition of his services Dryer was appointed by Lincoln as commissioner to the Sandwich Islands. Pittock successfully managed the Oregonian for a long span of years. After Dryer, editors were Simeon Francis, Henry Miller, Amory Hollbrook, John F. Damon, Samuel A. Clarke, H. W. Scott, W. Lair Hill, and again H. W . Scott. Mr. Scott was first editor in May, 1865, for a few years in the 70's he retired to become collector of customs, in 1877 he bought an interest in the paper and became editor-in-chief, a position he held virtually until his death in 1910.

Under Pittock and Scott the Oregonian attained a very solid reputation as a journal of the first class. Advantage was taken of the new improvements offered by science in new presses and in establishing daily telegraphic service with San Francisco as early as 1864. The Pittock-Scott control won for the Oregonian the political prestige formerly held by Bush and the Statesman. These same policies carried out in more recent times have given the Oregonian an international reputation.

Pacific Christian Advocate. In 1854 it was determined by the preachers and laymen of Oregon to issue a weekly religious paper, to be controlled by a joint stock company. T. H. Pearne was elected the editor, and he was directed to procure an office and a six months' supply of paper. The first number was issued in Salem, September 1, 1855. In an address on the 40th anniversary of the founding of the paper, Pearne said:

"In 1854 ... it was determined to organize a joint stock company to establish and issue a religious weekly in Oregon. It was estimated to cost some three or four thousand dollars to purchase an office and a six monthssupply of paper. Articles of agreement were prepared. George and Alexander Abernethy, James R. Robb, Beers, Holman, Kingsley, Waller, Wilbur, Parrish, Hines and perhaps one or two others subscribed the necessary amounts. . . .The necessary outfit was nearly six months in coming around Cape Horn.

We had considerable study and care in agreeing upon a name for the new paper. . . . The Oregon Christian Advocate was suggested, but rejected as being too long and narrow. The North Pacific Herald was proposed but rejected as being entirely too long. At last the Pacific Christian Advocate was suggested and adopted. (Suggested by A. F . Waller.) The paper was first published in Salem. After a few months the paper was removed to Portland. The circulation was at first rather small. It slowly increased until, in the first year, it had grown to eighteen hundred or two thousand. The editor's salary for several years was seven hundred dollars a year. . . . The joint stock company fell through because of non-payment of subscriptions. I was soon the sole proprietor of the plant, which had cost three thousand five hundred dollars.

In May, 1856, the General Conference bought the plant and instructed the New York book agents to continue publication. I was elected editor. In 1860 I was re-elected. In 1864 I declined re-election.

The paper has filled a high and important mission. When the Constitution of the State was formed and adopted, the paper made itself felt in favor of Oregon as a free state. . . . and it opposed other objectionable features during the formation of the Constitution, so that its mission in that direction was vitally important. Then, when secession was rife, and the Breckinridge and Lane faction of the Democratic party tried to swing California and Oregon into the secession movement, the editor of the Advocate rung out loudly for the Union cause, and against secession, adding to his editorials on this behalf his personal influence in the pulpit and on the rostrum for the Union."[14]

Later editors of the Advocate have been Rev. H . C. Benson, Rev. Isaac Dillon, and J. H. Acton. It is still being published.

Portland Commercial. A semi-weekly that began publication in the spring of 1853. S. J . McCormick sponsored the organ whose motto was "Open to all, controlled by none."

Portland Daily Bulletin. Established in 1870 by Ben Holladay. He was succeeded by James O'Meara, H. W. Scott, and T. B. Odeneal. Under the management of Odeneal it suspended in October, 1875. The Bulletin proved to be one of Holladay's many and expensive ventures in Oregon.

Portland Daily Plaindealer. Started in May, 1863, by A. C. Edmunds acting as editor and proprietor. Portland Daily Union. Founded in January, 1864, by H. R. Kincaid with W. Lair Hill as editor. Publication was suspended in May.

Portland Letter Sheet. The first issue was announced for August, 1869.

Sunday Welcome. The oldest Sunday paper, started by John F. Atkinson in 1870.

ROSEBURG

News Review. 1868.

Plaindealer. A weekly Republican paper established by William Thompson in March, 1870.

Roseburg Ensign. A Republican weekly established in May, 1867. "A firm supporter 'of the Union cause that is it is radical," says the States Rights Democrat of May 4, 1867. The plant was destroyed by fire in September, 1871, publication was resumed in January. The Gale Bros, later sold the plant to R. Tyson of the Dalles Republican.

Roseburg Express. Published in 1859 on the press of the Chronicle of Yreka (California), L. E. V. Voon & Co., publishers. It ran for a year and then failed.


SALEM

Capital City Chronicle. Started August 21, 1867, by Anthony Noltner, as editor, and J. H. Upton. In October Upton became sole owner and editor. In November a daily evening issue began.

Daily Democratic Press. Issued by Beriah Brown in 1870.

Daily Democratic Tocsin. First issued in January, 1868, suspending the following February. Jernegan and Company, publishers.[15]

Democratic Review. Started September, 1865, by Hicks, Bellinger and Anthony Noltner of the Eugene Review.

Oregon Agriculturist. Issued in 1865 by A. L. Stinson, but was soon sold to E. M. Waite of the Plowman. The two papers being consolidated into the Agriculturist and Plowman.[15]

Oregon Arena. Published in 1862 by C. B. Bellinger, A. Noltner and Urban E. Hicks. Bellinger, the editor, retiring in 1865 when Hicks assumed control.[16]

Oregon Medical and Surgical Reporter. One of the earliest medical journals on the Pacific Coast, first issued late in 1869 by E. R. Fiske, M. D., of Willamette University. Frank Cook was in control a short time later.

Oregon Statesman. Founded by A. W. Stockwell and Henry Russell, of Massachusetts, who secured Asahel Bush as editor. Publication was begun in Oregon City March 28, 1851. Bush was a cold, calculating, relentless politician who for at least eight or ten years dominated thru this journal the whole tenor of Oregon politics. The journal was the "Bible of Oregon Democracy," the paper and the man were supplementary to each other and constituted a force well nigh irresistible. The Statesman was the official Democratic organ of the territory, which gave it a natural prestige. It went into most of the Democratic homes of Oregon where seldom came an opposing paper to challenge its authority. The encouragement that Bush had received from Samuel B. Thurston, his fellow Democrat, to found a paper was more than justified. For years the Statesman candidate was chosen as State Printer by the territorial legislature—an influence that was not lost until the growing power of the Oregonian and the Whig press in general, caused defeat of the Statesman candidate in the hands of pittock of the Oregonian.

The paper had located in '51 at Oregon City, then the seat of the territorial legislature; however, when the capital was moved to Salem, the Statesman moved too. In June, 1853, the paper began publication in Salem. However, being the official paper of the territory, it followed the legislature to Corvallis in April, 1855. Fun was made of the "paper on wheels," but the publisher replied that the Statesman was published at the seat of the government wherever that might be. The new location of the capital was not authorized by Congress, but the legislature met in Corvallis in December and passed a bill to re-locate in Salem.

Located again in Salem Bush tightened his hold on the Democratic party. Bush and his political associates, R. P. Boise, Lafayette Grover, James W. Nesmith and Benjamin F. Harding soon were wearing the designation of the "Salem Clique." "A complete story of the capricious, arrogant rule in Oregon under the regime of the Salem Clique would form one of the most picturesque chapters in the political history of the West."[17] Joseph Lane had the early support of the Clique, but in 1859 they had split the party and had withdrawn their support from this "man of the people." After Lane's open advocacy of secession, Bush repudiated all connection he had ever had with him and came out strongly for the Union. On December 5, 1862, Bush declared that the radical's test of loyalty had become not "Are you for the Union?" but "Are you for Emancipation?" As for him, he was for the Union first and the Union only.

In March, 1863, the Statesman passed from the hands of Bush and his partner, James W. Nesmith, to those of C. P. Crandall and E. M. Waite. In November the paper was turned over to the Oregon Printing and Publishing Company that consolidated the Argus and the Statesman. The directors of the new company comprised both radical Republicans and Douglas Democrats. They were J. W. P. Huntington, Rufus Mallory, D. W. Craig, C. P. Crandall and C. W. Terry. Loyalty to the Union was reaffirmed.

In 1866 the paper was again sold, this time to Benjamin Simpson and his sons, Sylvester and Samuel. Later it went to William McPherson, who merged it with the Unionist and published it under that name. After the death of J. W . P . Huntington, its next owner, it came into the hands of Sam A. Clarke and the name of the Statesman was again adopted.

Oregon Unionist. Established in 1866 by William McPherson and William Morgan of the Albany Journal when McPherson became State Printer and moved to Salem. McPherson soon acquired the Statesman, but in August, 1867, he retired to private life, the paper being continued by Morgan until it came into the hands of Sam A. Clarke who used the name of the Statesman.

Pacific Christian Advocate, see Portland—Pacific Christian Advocate.

Salem Daily Record. Began publication in June, 1867.

Salem Daily Visitor. Started in September, 1870, by J. Henry Brown.

Salem Mercury. Started late in 1869 and had a struggling existence for a few years and then moved to Portland.

Salem Press. Democratic journal of Beriah Brown's started February 9, 1869.

Salem Recorder. The Western Star of March 19, 1861, states that a paper is about to be started in Salem by Joseph S. Smith to be called the Salem Recorder.

Vox Populi. The first newspaper published in Salem. Four numbers were issued from December 16, 1851, to January 16, 1852, during the legislative assembly "by an association of gentlemen." A great deal was said about the location of the capital, causing no little discomfort for the federal authorities.

Willamette Farmer. First issued March, 1869, with John Minto as editor and A. L. Stinson, publisher. A . J. Dufur succeeded Minto in April, 1870.


SCOTTSBURG

Umpqua Gazette. The first paper of Southern Oregon, started April 28, 1854, by Daniel Jackson Lyons, as editor, and William J. Beggs, printer. Lyons left his position with the close of volume one, the place being filled by G. D . R . Boyd. The paper suspended September, 1855, Messrs. Taylor, Blakeley and T'Vault buying the plant which they moved to Jacksonville to establish the Table Rock Sentinel.


THE DALLES

Dalles Journal. A prospectus was issued by A. J. Price in November, 1858, for the Journal to come out in January. Probably publication did not begin until March, 1859. On April 1, 1860, it was purchased by W. H. Newell who changed the name to the Mountaineer.

Democratic State Journal. Sold in 1863 to W. W. Bancroft who moved the plant to Idaho where he published a Union paper.

Mountaineer. Published at Fort Dalles by Captain Thomas Jordan, February 6, 1860. This was shortly consolidated by W. H. Newell with the Dalles Journal. In 1862 it became a daily. The daily issue was abandoned in 1866 when on June 3rd Cowne and Halloran bought the paper. A year later it was published by W. M. Hand who ran it until his death in 1881. In 1901 it merged with the Times and became the Times Mountaineer.

Dalles Republican. First issued as a weekly about 1870. Suspended in 1901.


TUALATIN PLAINS

Oregon American and Evangelican Unionist.—Eight numbers only were issued between June 7, 1848, and May 23, 1849. The famous Whitman mission press was used for this sixteen page magazine. Its prospectus defines its scope and interests:

"It is devoted to American principles and interests,— To evangelical religion and morals,—To general intelligence, foreign and domestic,—To temperance and moral instrumentalities generally,—To science, literature and the arts,—To commerce and internal improvements,— To agriculture and home manufactures,—To the description and development of our natural resources,—To the physical, intellectual and moral education of rising generations,—And such well defined discussions generally, as are calculated to elevate and dignify the character of a free people. Edited by Rev. J . S . Griffin and printed by C. F. Putnam. Issued every two weeks."

Much space was given to the accounts of the Whitman massacre that had occurred the preceding winter. These accounts caused much discussion pro and con of the causes leading up to it. After number seven the paper was suspended for some months, the editor stating that some one who objected to the editorials on the Whitman massacre had hired the printer to break his contract and go off to the mines. By May a new printer was secured and on May 23rd the eighth and last number was issued.


UMATILLA

Columbia Press. Earlier name of the Umatilla Press.

Index. Later name of the Umatilla Press. Judge L. L . McArthur was the editor, but there was not sufficient business so the paper merged with the Advertiser.

Umatilla Advertiser. Nelson Whitney began the publication of this independent paper in the spring of 1865. It soon became Republican in Politics which stirred up the Democrats so that the Press was started. Later the two papers merged, but when Pendleton became the county seat in 1869 the Advertiser suspended.

Umatilla Press. Earlier the Columbia Press. T. W. Avery and A. C. Dow, stirred by the Republican Advertiser, financed this paper in 1866.


UNION

Mountain Sentinel. Established in 1868. E. S. McComas was the editor in 1876.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bancroft, H. H. History of Oregon. 2 v. San Francisco, History Co., 1886-88.

Carey, C. H. History of Oregon. Portland, Pioneer Historical Publishing Co., 1922.

Clarke, S. A. Pioneer Days of Oregon History. 2 v. Portland, Gill, 1905.

Cole, G. E. Early Oregon Jottings of Personal Recollections of a Pioneer of 1850. Spokane, Shaw, 1905.

Deady, M. P. Oregon History and Progress. (Mss. vol. Bancroft Library.)

Dodge, Orvil. Pioneer History of Coos and Curry Counties, Oregon. Salem, Capital Printing Co., 1898.

Dufur, A. J. Statistics of the State of Oregon. Salem, Willamette Farmer Office, 1869.

Gale, H. H. Resources of Coos County. Marshfield, Coos County Record Co., 1875.

Gilbert, F. T. Historic Sketches of Walla Walla, Whitman, Columbia and Garfield Counties, Washington Territory and Umatilla County, Oregon. Portland, Walling, 1882.

Geer, H. H. Fifty Years in Oregon. N. Y. Neale, 1912.

Himes, G. H. History of the Press of Oregon, 1839-1850. Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, 3:327-70. December, 1902.

Himes, G. H. First Newspapers of Southern Oregon and Their Editors. Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society. 24:56-67. March, 1923.

History of Benton County, Oregon, published by David D. Fagan, Roland Walling, 1885-9.

History of Southern Oregon. Portland, Oregon, 1884.

History of the Origins of the Oregon Statesman. Ladd and Bush Quarterly, 3:311. April, 1915.

Horner, J. B. Oregon, Her History, Her Great Men, Her Literature. Corvallis, Oregon Gazette-Times, 1919.

Illustrated History of Lane County, Oregon. Portland, Walling, 1884.

Lang, H. O. ed. History of the Willamette Valley. Portland, Himes, 1885.

Lockley, Fred. (Notes on Oregon Newspapers), Portland Oregonian, June 27, 1923; June 28, 1923; December 17, 1923 .

Lord, Mrs. Elizabeth. Reminiscences of Eastern Oregon. Portland, Irwin-Hodson, 1903.

Lyman, H. S. History of Oregon, the Growth of an American State. 4v. N. Y ., North Pacific Publishing Society, 1903.

Newspapers in Oregon. Portland Daily Advertiser, p. 3 . January 1, 1861.

Portland Directory, v. 1-9, 1863-71. Portland, McCormick, 1863-71.

Rhodes, J. F. Newspapers as Historical Sources. Atlantic Monthly, 103:650-57. May, 1909.

Salmon, L. M. The Newspaper and the Historian. N. Y., Oxford University Press, 1923.

Scott, L. M. Oregon History Writers and Their Materials. Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, 25:284-93. September, 1924.

Woodward, W. C. The Rise and Early History of Political Parties in Oregon, 1843-1868. Portland, Gill, 1913.

N. B .—The Oregon Newspapers, 1846-70, preserved in the Oregon Historical Society Library and Portland Public Library were examined for the preparation of this bibliography. The Sacramento Union and the San Francisco Bulletin, in the Bancroft Historical Library at University of California, were also used.

  1. Deady, M. P. Oregon History and Progress, p. 13.
  2. Salmon, Lucy. The Newspaper and the Historian, 1923, p. xxxviii.
  3. Woodward, W. C. Political Parties in Oregon, p. 51.
  4. Rhodes, J. F. Newspapers as Historical Sources. Atlantic Monthly, 103, p . 657. May, 1909.
  5. Himes, G. H. History of the Press of Oregon, 1839-1850. Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, v. 3, p. 327-70. December, 1902.
    First newspapers of Southern Oregon and their Editors. Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, v. 24, p. 56-67. March, 1923.
  6. Mss. letter Oregon Historical Society Library M. P . Deady to Jesse Applegate. March 15, 1862, comments on suppression.
  7. Bancroft, H. H. History of Oregon, v. 2, p. 421.
  8. Bancroft—History of Oregon, v. 2, p. 492, notes the Mountain Sentinel as being established by E. S. McComas in October, 1864. The date is surely wrong and probably Bancroft has connected the Blue Mountain Times and the Grande Ronde Sentinel.
  9. Quoted by W. C Woodward. The Rise and Early History of Political Parties in Oregon, 1843-1868, p. 31-2.
  10. Spectator, January 20, 1848.
  11. A. Bush to M. P. Deady, April 17, 1851.
  12. Spectator January 13, 1852.
  13. Oregonian November 1, 1856. Quoted by Woodward W. C. Political Parties in Oregon, 1843-1868, p. 98.
  14. Letter of Nellie B. Pipes of the Oregon Historical Society to the compiler, March 16, 1925, quotes this extract from Pearne's address. The editor possibly overestimates his influence in the Union cause for other non-prejudiced commentators accuse him of closing his eyes to the slavery issue until the question was unmistakably upon him.
  15. 15.0 15.1 O'Meara, Jas. Mss. note in Oregon Historical Society Library.
  16. O'Meara, Jas. Mss. note in Oregon Historical Society Library.
  17. Woodward, W. S. Political Parties in Oregon, 1843-68, p. 80.