Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 2.djvu/610

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Great organ. 12 stops.
1. Bourdon, to CC 53
2. Open Diapason 57
3. Stopped Diapason 57
4. Principal 57
5. Twelfth 57
6. Fifteenth 57
7. Tierce 57
8. Sesquialtera, 4 ranks 228
9. Furniture, 3 ranks 171
10. Cornet to mid. C, 5 ranks 145
11. Trumpet 57
12. Clarion 57
Choir Organ. 7 stops.
13. Dulciana, of metal throughout 57
14. Stopped Diapason 57
15. Principal 57
16. Flute 57
17. Fifteenth 57
18. Bassoon up to Fiddle G 36
19. Vox Humana 57
Swell. 8 stops, and 3 borrowed Bass stops.
20. Open Diapason 36
21. Stopped Diapason 36
22. Dulciana 36
23. German Flute, to mid. C 29
24. Cornet, 4 ranks 144
25. French Horn 36
26. Trumpet 36
27. Hautboy 36
a. Stopped Bass from Choir.
b. Dulciana Bass
c. Flute Bass
Total 1860
Compass, Gt. and Chr. GG, long 8ves. no GG♯, to E in alt, 57 notes.
Swell, Tenor F to E in alt, 36 notes.

1789. Greenwich Hospital. Samuel Green.

Swell to FF.

In the organ made for the chapel of the Royal Hospital at Greenwich, Green extended the compass of the Swell down to FF, a most important improvement; and included therein not only a Dulciana but also its octave, the Dulcet or Dulciana Principal. The disposition of this organ stood as follows:—

Great organ. 11 stops.
1. Open Diapason 59
2. Open Diapason 59
3. Stopped Diapason 59
4. Principal 59
5. Flute 59
6. Twelfth 59
7. Fifteenth 59
8. Sesquialtera, 3 ranks 177
9. Mixture, 2 ranks 118
10. Cornet to mid. C, 4 ranks 116
11. Trumpet 59
Choir organ. 5 stops.
12. Stopped Diapason 59
13. Principal 59
14. Flute 59
15. Fifteenth 59
16. Bassoon 59
Swell organ. 8 stops.
17. Open Diapason 48
18. Stopped Diapason 48
19. Dulciana 48
20. Principal 48
21. Dulciana Principal 48
22. Cornet. 3 ranks 144
23. Trumpet 48
24. Hautboy 48
Total 1658

1790. St. George's Chapel, Windsor.

Samuel Green.

Great Organ in general Swell.

In the organ built for the Chapel Royal at Windsor in the following year, Green further extended the effect of the 'crescendo' and 'diminuendo' by enclosing the entire Great Organ in a large general Swell. The upper manual organ thus became 'a Swell within a Swell.' The great front pipes, east and west, were therefore all 'mutes,' but were replaced by speaking pipes when the general swell was taken away some years ago by Gray. The compass of the Great and Choir Organs was carried down to FFF, 12 ft., as in Green's organ at Greenwich, and also in those which he restored at Magdalen College, Oxford, and York Minster.

Great organ. 11 stops.
1. Open Diapason 59
2. Open Diapason 59
3. Stopped Diapason 59
4. Principal 59
5. Twelfth 59
6. Fifteenth 59
7. Sesquialtera, 3 ranks 177
8. Mixture, 2 ranks 118
9. Cornet to mid. C, 4 ranks 116
10. Trumpet 59
11. Small Trumpet (Clarion) 59
Choir organ. 6 stops.
12. Dulciana, to FF 48
13. Stopped Diapason 59
14. Principal 59
15. Flute 59
16. Fifteenth 59
17. Bassoon 59
Swell organ. 8 stops.
18. Open Diapason 36
19. Stopped Diapason 36
20. Dulciana 36
21. Principal 36
22. Dulciana Principal 36
23. Cornet, 3 ranks 104
24. Trumpet 36
25. Hautboy 36
Compass, Gt. and Chr. FFF, no FFF♯, to E in alt, 59 notes.
Swell, Tenor F, to E in alt; 36 notes.

1790. Introduction of Pedals.

Although, as we have seen, Pedals were known in Germany upwards of four hundred years ago, yet they were not introduced into England until nearly the close of the last century. Who first made them, or which was the first organ to have them, are matters of some doubt. The organs in Westminster Abbey, the German Lutheran Church in the Savoy, and St. Matthew's, Friday Street, each claim the priority. The first organ that is known for certain to have had them, was that made in 1790 by G. P. England, and erected by him at St. James's, Clerkenwell, which instrument, according to the words of the original specification, was 'to have Pedals to play by the feet.' These, like the early German specimens, were an octave only in compass, GG to Gamut G; and also, as at Halberstadt, etc., had no pipes of their own, but only drew down the manual keys. Before 1793 Avery put Pedals to the Westminster Abbey organ, together with an octave of Unison wood GG Pedal pipes; and from that date he frequently introduced both into his own instruments. In 1811 G. P. England built an organ for Lancaster with 1½ octave of Pedals, GG to Tenor C; and two couplers, Great and Choir to Pedal. He also, like Avery, became a strong advocate for separate pipes for the pedals, introducing them in 1803 into his organ at Newark, which had the FFF (12 ft.) pipe.

After a time pipes of double size, speaking down to GGG (21½ feet length) were made, as by Elliott & Hill at Westminster Abbey, etc. Besides the Unison and Double Pedal-pipe ranges, a mongrel scale crept into use, which, though most defective, was for a few years the most frequently followed. This consisted of an octave of double pipes from CC down to CCC, and then five unison pipes from BB down to GG. The five pedal keys, B to G, at each extremity of the pedal-board, were thus without any difference in the pitch of their five sounds.

1809. Composition Pedals. J. C. Bishop.

In 1809 the late J. C. Bishop effected the improvement on the old Shifting movement which afterwards became so generally known as the Composition Pedals. [See vol. i. p. 382b.] An important modification on his original mechanism is now generally made, by a long arm of iron, called a fan, extending horizontally in front of the vertical draw-rods, where by suitable mechanism it is made to wave up and down. As the fan moves it comes in contact with small 'blocks' of wood, by which it moves the rods;