Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 22.djvu/74

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Happiness,’ 1793, 1796, 1798. 4. ‘Things as they are; or the Adventures of Caleb Williams,’ 1794 (often republished). 5. ‘Cursory Strictures on the Charge of Chief-Justice Eyre,’ 1794. 6. ‘The Enquirer … a series of Essays,’ 1797 (new edition, 1823). 7. ‘Memoirs of the Author of a Vindication of the Rights of Women,’ 1798. 8. ‘St. Leon, a Tale of the 16th Century,’ 1799. 9. ‘Antonio, a Tragedy in five acts in verse,’ 1800. 10. ‘Thoughts occasioned by … Dr. Parr's Spital Sermon,’ 1801. 11. ‘Life of Geoffrey Chaucer … with Sketches of the Manners … of England,’ 2 vols. 4to, 1803; 4 vols. 8vo, 1804; a German translation, 1812. 12. ‘Faulkener, a Tragedy in prose,’ 1807. 13. ‘Essay on Sepulchres,’ 1809. 14. ‘Lives of Edward and John Philips, Nephews and Pupils of Milton’ (with appendices), 1815. 15. ‘Mandeville, a Tale of the 17th Century,’ 1817. 16. ‘Of Population … in answer to Mr. Malthus,’ 1820. 17. ‘History of the Commonwealth of England … to the Restoration of Charles II,’ 4 vols. 8vo, 1824–8. 18. ‘Cloudesley, a Tale,’ 1830. 19. ‘Thoughts on Man; his Nature, Productions, and Discoveries,’ 1831. 20. ‘Deloraine,’ 1833. 21. ‘Lives of the Necromancers,’ 1834. 22. ‘Essays’ never before published, 1873. Godwin published some children's books, ‘Fables’ (1805 and eleven later editions), a ‘Pantheon,’ and histories of Greece, Rome, and England, under the pseudonym Edward Baldwin. ‘The Looking-glass, a true History of the Early Years of an Artist … by Theophilus Marcliffe’ (1805), is also attributed to him by Mr. F. G. Stephens, who edited a facsimile edition in 1885. Mr. Stephens shows that it was probably an account of the life of William Mulready (1786–1863) [q. v.]

[C. Kegan Paul's William Godwin, his Friends and Contemporaries, 2 vols. 8vo, 1876; Dowden's Life of Shelley; Talfourd's Final Memorials of Charles Lamb; Hazlitt's Spirit of the Age; Gent. Mag. 1836, i. 666–70; H. Crabb Robinson's Diary, 1869; Mrs. Julian Marshall's Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, 1890.]

L. S.

GODWIN-AUSTEN, ROBERT ALFRED CLOYNE (1808–1884), geologist, eldest son of Sir Henry Edmund Austen of Shalford House, Guildford, Surrey, who died 1 Dec. 1871, by Anne Amelia, only daughter of Robert Spearman Bate of the H.E.I. Co.'s service, was born at Shalford House on 17 March 1808, and sent to a school at Midhurst in Sussex, whence he was removed to a semi-military college in France. He matriculated from Oriel College, Oxford, 8 June 1826; in 1830 graduated B.A. and was elected fellow of Oriel. At Oxford he was, like Lyell, a pupil of Buckland, and from him imbibed a passion for geological study. In 1830 he became a student of Lincoln's Inn.

At this time he met Lyell, Leonard Horner, and Murchison, and, introduced by these three friends, was admitted a fellow of the Geological Society 19 March 1830. On 23 July 1833 he married Maria Elizabeth, only child, and afterwards heiress, of Major-general Sir Henry Thomas Godwin [q. v.] On the death of this gentleman, in October 1853, Austen, by royal license, took the additional surname of Godwin. In the year after his marriage he went to reside at Ogwell House, near Newton Abbot, Devonshire, where he made a study of the fossiliferous Devonian limestones, the outliers of cretaceous strata, and the tertiary deposits of Bovey Tracey. De la Beche entrusted to him the construction of portions of the Devonshire map, and Phillips found in the collection at Ogwell House many of the specimens figured in his ‘Palæozoic Fossils.’ Between 1834 and 1840 Austen read before the Geological Society a number of papers dealing with the district in which he resided. Returning to his native county in 1838, after a brief residence at Shalford House, he went to live at Gosden House, and subsequently at Merrow House, both situated near Guildford. At a later date, 1846, he removed to Chilworth Manor in the same county. Between 1841 and 1876 he was frequently a member of the council of the Geological Society, in 1843–4 and again in 1853–4 he was secretary, and between 1865 and 1867 he acted as foreign secretary of the society. On 7 June 1849 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. He next commenced a series of researches on the geology of the south-east of England, the results of which were laid before the Geological Society, 1843–53, and did much to extend the knowledge of the wealden, the neocomian, and the cretaceous systems. During this decade he spent much time in yachting, and made observations on the valley of the English Channel and the drifts of its shores, on the geology of the Channel Islands, the Bourbonnais, and other parts of France. On the death of his friend Edward Forbes [q. v.], on 18 Nov. 1854, Godwin-Austen, acting as his literary executor, completed his two unfinished works, ‘The Tertiary-Fluvio-Marine formation of the Isle of Wight,’ 1856, and ‘Outlines of the Natural History of Europe, the Natural History of the European Seas,’ 1859. He also completed Forbes's ‘Essay on the Distribution of Marine Forms of Life.’ In 1840 he read a paper on the zoological position of the extinct forms of cephalopoda, and also threw out the suggestion that the old red sandstone and the poikilitic strata are of