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408

BROOKS,

PHILLIPS

of broad, park-lined streets of differing length, the best known of which is the drive from Prospect Park to Coney Island. Brooklyn has long been known as the city of churches, probably from the famous clergymen who formerly lived there. In 1900 there were in the borough 466 churches, of which the Protestant numbered 364 with 129,413 members, and property valued at $16,925,781. The Roman Catholic churches numbered 84, with 307,975 parishioners, and property valued at $10,086,000. The borough. contains a large number, of hospitals and other eleemosynary institutions, aid numerous libraries and educational institutions. Among its libraries are the Brooklyn Library, with (1901) 153,000 volumes; the Brooklyn Public Library, with .40,000; and the Long Island Historical Society Library with 66,000. Among its educational institutions _is the Pratt Institute, largely for technical and industrial education, with 3000 students. This school has a fine .library of 70,543 volumes. The Brooklyn Institute; founded in 1824,-and reorganized in 1890 as the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, has a fine building erecte.d by the city, a membership (1900) of 6250, and gives lectures and laboratory practice in twenty-six departments of art and science. The public school system of Brooklyn consisted in 1901 of 1 training, 6 high, 121 elementary, and 1 truant schools; employed 3961 teachers and supervisors, and gave elementary and high school education to 154,542 scholars. In 1900 there were in the borough 354,612 persons of school age (5 to 20 years inclusive). Of a total street mileage of 722 miles, all but 162 miles were paved as follows: —granite blocks, 117 miles; Belgian blocks, 47 miles; asphalt, 82 miles; cobble stone, 227 miles; macadam, 82 miles; brick, 5 miles. Order is maintained by a . force of 1838 police, including officers and privates. The provision against fire consists of 62 engines and 17 hook and ladder companies. The water-supply is in public hands; it is derived from streams flowing southwards in the sparsely settled area east of the borough, and also from driven wells in the same region; it is pumped at Ridgewood to a reservoir having a capacity of 375,000,000 gallons, while a small part is re-pumped to a high-service reservoir for the service of the most elevated part of the borough. Besides this system the towns recently annexed have their own water-supply. Within the limits of the borough are 597 miles of public distributing mains. The borough has seven markets, including the immense Wallabout market, which is situated on the water front and has a large wholesale trade. Although in great part a residential suburb of her greater neighbour on the other side of the East river, Brooklyn has large manufacturing and commercial interests of her own. By the census of 1890 she had 10,583 industrial establishments employing capital to the amount of $161,730,500. The number of employees was 109,292, and to them was paid $65,247,119 in wages. Raw material to the value of $151,060,710 was used, and the value of the products was $269,244,147. These products were varied, no class greatly preponderating ; the following list contains the principal items, with the value of the product:—bread and other bakery products, $9,331,523 ; chemicals, $9,091,609; clothing, $13,941,636 ; cordage, $6,535,792 ; foundry and machineshop products, $15,627,536 ; malt liquors, $12,004,529 ; lumber, $5,930,829 ; slaughtering and meat packing, $13,087,354 ; sugar refining, $16,629,982. Besides the above, oil refining and shipbuilding are important industries, and at the present time probably half the sugar supply of the country is refined here. As a commercial port Brooklyn is surpassed only by the borough of Manhattan and by Jersey city. It has 33 miles of water front, that portion bordering on the East river and New York harbour being lined with wharves, docks, warehouses, and elevators, constructed at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars. Among its docks are the Atlantic Basin, containing 40 acres, and having seven elevators, and the Erie Basin, enclosing about 100 acres, and containing two dry docks, respectively 510 and 610 feet long, besides three floating dry docks. Brooklyn is the principal port in the U.S. for the export of grain, four-fifths of that exported

from the port of New York being shipped here. Its elevators have a capacity of 20,000,000 bushels. Steamships of more than twenty ■ regular lines land here, besides many “tramps’ and sailing vessels. The U.S, Navy Yard, located here, is the largest in the country, and contains three dry docks, respectively 338, 440, and 627 feet in length on the floor. The borough contains also a U.S. Naval Hospital. Most of the financial operations are carried on upon the opposite side of the East river, yet the bormigh contains 5 national banks, 16 state banks, 16 savings banks, and 10 trust companies. The assessed valuation of real estate in 1901 was $658,962,119, and of personal property, $89,241,624, a total of $748,203,743. The tax rate for municipal purposes {i.e. expenses of New York city as a whole) was 2'03869 per cent.; for local county purposes (expenses of King’s county), 0-14908 per cent, additional. The number of marriages in 1900 was 8087, of births 23,073, and of deaths 23,473, showing a death-rate of 20 per thousand. The population of what is now Brooklyn, then King’s county, was in 1880, 599,495 ; in 1890, 838,547 ; and in 1900, 1,166,582. The towns added to it in 1894 had in 1890 a population as follows :—Flatbush, 12,338 ; Flatlands, 4075 ; Gravesend, 6937 ; New Utrecht, 8854. Of the total population in 1900, 355,697 were foreign-born and 19,673 were coloured, of whom 18,367 were negroes. Of the white population, 1,146,909, comprising 98 3 per cent, of the total population, 353,750 were foreignborn, 482,658 were native-born but of foreign parents, leaving only 310,501, or 27 per cent., native-born of native parents. Out of 332,715 males of voting age (21 years and over), 15,415 were illiterate (unable to write), of whom 14,159 were foreign-born. The death-rate, which in 1890 was 24, had fallen to 19'9 in 1900. (See also New York City.) Brooks, Phillips (1835-1893), American clergyman and author, was born in Boston, Mass., 13th December 1835. He was son of William Gray and Mary Ann (Phillips) Brooks. Through his father he was descended from the Rev. John Cotton ; through his mother, a woman of rare force of character and religious faith, he was a great-grandson of the founder of Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass. Of the six sons, four—Phillips, Frederic, Arthur, and John Cotton—entered the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal Church. He was' educated in the Boston Latin School and Harvard College, graduating in 1855. After a short and unsuccessful experience as a teacher in the Boston Latin School, he began in 1856 to study for the ministry of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Seminary at Alexandria, Virginia. In 1859 he was ordained deacon by Bishop Meade of Virginia, and became rector of the Church of the Advent, Philadelphia. In 1860 he was ordained priest, and in 1862 became rector of the Church of the Holy Trinity, Philadelphia, where he remained seven years, gaining an increasing name as preacher and patriot. Endowed by inheritance with a rich religious character, evangelical traditions, ethical temper, and strong intellect, he developed, by wide reading in ancient and modern literature, a personality and an attitude of mind which appealed to the characteristic thought and life of the period. With Tennyson, Coleridge, Maurice, and F. D. Robertson he was in strong sympathy. During the Civil War he upheld with power the cause of the North and the negro, and his sermon on the death of President Lincoln was an eloquent expression of the character of both men. In 1869 he became rector of Trinity Church, Boston. In 1877 the present church was built, the architect being his friend H. H. Richardson. Here Phillips Brooks preached Sunday after Sunday to great congregations, until he was consecrated bishop of Massachusetts in 1891. In 1886 he declined an election as assistant bishop of Pennsylvania. He was for many years an overseer and preacher of Harvard University. In 1881. he declined an invitation to be the sole preacher to the University and professor of Christian Ethics. His influence upon the religious life of the University was deep and wide. In the hearts of the people of his own city and commonwealth, and as years passed, of the whole country, he held a position of unique influence. His character was pure, simple, and great. Just, endowed