Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/106

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key (op. 4) and Mendelssohn's edition of the scherzo from his Octett in E♭ (op. 20) for full orchestra, introduced by him into his symphony in C minor—which are rather new works founded on old materials than arrangements in the ordinary sense of the term. They are moreover exceptions even to the practice of composers themselves, and do not come under the head of the general subject of arrangement. For however unlimited may be the rights of composers to alter their own works, the rights of others are limited to redistribution and variation of detail; and even in detail the alterations can only be legitimate to the degree which is rendered indispensable by radical differences in the instruments, and must be such as are warranted by the quality, proportions, and style of the context.

It may be convenient to close this article with a list of adaptations of their own works by the composers themselves, as far as they can be ascertained:—

1. Bach's arrangements of his own works are numerous. Some of them have already been noticed, but the following is a complete list of those indicated in Dörffel's Thematic Catalogue.

Concerto in F for clavier and two flutes with 4tett acct. (D. 561-3), appears also in G as concerto for violin and two flutes with 5tett acct (D. 1072-4).—Concerto in G minor for clavier with 5tett acct. (D. 564), as concerto in A minor for violin with 4tett acct. (D. 600).—Concerto in D major for clavier with 4tett acct. (D. 570), as concerto for violin in E major with 4tett acct. (D. 603).—The Prelude and Fugue in A minor for clavier solo (D. 400, 401), appears, with much alteration, as 1st and 3rd movements of concerto for clavier, flute, and violin in same key, with 5tett acct. (D. 582, 584). The slow movement of the same concerto, in C (D. 583), is taken from the third organ sonata, where it stands in F (D. 774).—The fugue in G minor for violin solo, from Sonata 1 (D. 610) appears in D minor, arranged for the organ (D. 821).—Sonata 3 for violin solo in A minor (D. 621-4), appears in D minor for clavier solo (D. 108–11).—The prelude in E for violin solo to Sonata 6 (D. 634) is arranged for organ and full orchestra in D, as 'sinfonia' to the Rathswahl cantata 'Wir danken dir, Gott,' No. 29 of the Kirchencantaten of the Bachgesellschaft (vol. v. 1), and the first movement of the 5th Sonata for Violin in C (D. 630) appears as a separate movement for Clavier in G (D. 141).—The first movement of the Concerto in E for Clavier appears in the Introduction to the Cantata 'Gott soll allein'; and the two first movements of the Concerto in D minor appear in the Cantata 'Wir müssen durch viel Trübsal.'

2. Handel was very much in the habit of using up the compositions both of himself and others, sometimes by transplanting them bodily from one work to another—as his own Allelujahs from the Coronation Anthems into 'Deborah,' or Kerl's organ Canzona, which appears nearly note for note as 'Egypt was glad' in 'Israel in Egypt'; and sometimes by conversion, as in the 'Messiah,' where the Choruses 'His yoke' and 'All we' are arranged from two of his own Italian Chamber duets, or in 'Israel in Egypt' where he laid his organ Fugues and an early Magnificat under large contribution. In other parts of 'Israel,' and in the 'Dettingen Te Deum' he used the music of Stradella and Urio with greater or less freedom. But these works come under a different category from those of Bach, and will be better examined under their own heads. More to the present purpose are his adaptations of his Orchestral works, such as the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th of the 2nd Set of Organ Concertos, which are mere adaptations of the 11th, 12th, 1st, and 6th of the 12 Concerti Grossi (op. 6). No. 1 of the same set of Organ Concertos is partly adapted from the 6th Sonata or Trio (op. 5).

3. Beethoven. The arrangements of the seventh and eighth symphonies for two hands, published by Steiner at the same time with the scores, although not by Beethoven himself, were looked through and corrected by him. He arranged the Grand Fugue for String Quartett (op. 133) as a duet for Piano. No other pianoforte arrangements by him are known; but he is said to have highly approved of those of his symphonies by Mr. Watts. Beethoven however rearranged several of his works for other combinations of instruments than those for which he originally composed them. Op. 1, No. 3, pianoforte trio, arranged as string quintett (op. 104). Op. 4, string quintett (two violins), arranged from the octett for wind instruments (1796), published later as op. 103. Op. 14, No. 1, pianoforte sonata in E, arranged as a string quartett in F. Op. 16, quintett for pianoforte and wind instruments, arranged as a pianoforte string quartett. Op. 20, the Septett, arranged as a trio for pianoforte, clarinet or violin, and cello (op. 38). Op. 36, symphony No. 2, arranged as a pianoforte trio. Op. 61, violin concerto, arranged as pianoforte concerto. The above are all that are certainly by Beethoven. Op. 31, No. 1, Pianoforte Sonata—G, arranged as a string quartett, is allowed by Nottebohm to be probably by the composer. So also were Op. 8, Notturno for String Trio arranged for Pianoforte and Tenor (op. 42), and Op. 25, Serenade for Flute, Violin, and Tenor, arranged for Pianoforte and Flute (op. 41), were looked over and revised by him.

4. Schubert. Arrangement for four hands of overture in C major 'in the Italian style' (op. 170), overture in D major, and overture to 'Rosamunde'; and for two hands of the accompaniments to the Romance and three choruses in the same work. The song 'Der Leidende' (Lief. 50, No. 2), in B minor, is an arrangement for voice and piano of the second trio (in B♭ minor') of the second Entracte of 'Rosamunde.'

5. Mendelssohn. For four hands: the Octett (op. 20); the 'Midsummer's Night's Dream' overture and other music; the 'Hebrides' overture; the overture for military band (op. 24); the andante and variations in B♭ (op. 83 a), originally written for two hands. For two hands: the accompaniments to the Hochzeit