airs, amassed during thirty years from old pipers and other local sources. The chief collection of Northumbrian music is known as Peacock's; a book which is now so scarce as to be almost unprocurable.
Many composers have imitated the tone of the bagpipe by the orchestra; the most familiar cases occur in the 'Dame Blanche' of Boieldieu and the 'Dinorah' of Meyerbeer.
[ W. H. S. ]
BAI, Tommaso, was born at Crevalcuore, near Bologna, towards the end of the 17th century, and was for many years one of the tenor singers in the chapel of the Vatican. In 1713 he was made maestro of that basilica, according to an extract from the chapel books cited by Baini, because he was the oldest and most accomplished member of the choir. He died in the year following this recognition of his excellence. His fame rests on a single achievement. His 'Miserere,' written at the request of his choir, is the only one (if we except that by Baini) out of a long series by composers known and unknown, including Naldini, Felice Anerio, Tartini, and Alessandro Scarlatti, which has been thought worthy to take permanent rank with those of Allegri and Palestrina. Other works by Bai exist, but they are in manuscript. They consist of a mass, twelve motetti for four, five, and eight voices, and a 'De Profundis' for eight voices. They are all enumerated in the catalogue of the collection made by the Abbé Santini.
[ E. H. P. ]
BAILDON, Joseph, a gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and lay-vicar of Westminster Abbey in the middle of the 18th century. In 1763 he obtained one of the first prizes given by the Catch Club for a catch, and in 1766 was awarded a prize for his fine glee, 'When gay Bacchus fills my breast.' In 1763 he was appointed organist of the churches of St. Luke, Old Street, and All Saints, Fulham. Ten catches and four glees by him are contained in Warren's collections, and others are in print. Baildon published a collection of songs in two books entitled 'The Laurel,' and 'Four Favourite Songs sung by Mr. Beard at Ranelagh Gardens.' He died May 7, 1774.
[ W. H. H. ]
BAILLOT, Pierre Marie François de Sales, takes a prominent place among the great French violin-players. He was born Oct. 1, 1771, at Passy, near Paris, where his father kept a school. He shewed very early remarkable musical talent, and got his first instruction on the violin from an Italian named Polidori. In 1780 Sainte- Marie, a French violinist, became his teacher, and by his severe taste and methodical instruction gave him the first training in those artistic qualities by which Baillot's playing was afterwards so much distinguished. When ten years of age, he heard Viotti play one of his concertos. His performance filled the boy with intense admiration, and, although for twenty years he had no second opportunity of hearing him, he often related later in life, how from that day Viotti remained for him the model of a violin-player, and his style the ideal to be realised in his own studies. After the loss of his father in 1783 a Mons. de Boucheporn, a high government official, sent him, with his own children, to Rome, where he was placed under the tuition of the violin-player Pollani, a pupil of Nardini. Although his progress was rapid and soon enabled him to play successfully in public, we find him during the next five years living with his benefactor alternately at Pau, Bayonne, and other places in the south of France, acting as his private secretary, and devoting but little time to his violin. In 1791 he came to Paris, determined to rely for the future on his musical talent. Viotti procured him a place in the opera-band, but Baillot very soon resigned it, in order to accept an appointment in the Ministère des Finances, which he kept for some years, devoting merely his leisure hours to music and violin-playing. After having been obliged to join the army for twenty months he returned, in 1795, to Paris, and, as Fétis relates, became accidentally acquainted with the violin-compositions of Corelli, Tartini, Geminiani, Locatelli, Bach (!) and Handel. The study of the works of these great masters filled him with fresh enthusiasm, and he once more determined to take up music as his profession. He soon made his appearance in public with a concerto of Viotti, and with such success, that his reputation was at once established, and a professorship of violin-playing was given him at the newly-opened Conservatoire. In 1802 he entered Napoleon's private band, and afterwards travelled for three years in Russia (1805–1808) together with the violoncello-player Lamare, earning both fame and money. In 1814 he started concerts for chamber-music in Paris, which met with great success, and acquired him the reputation of an unrivalled quartett-player. In 1815 and 1816 he travelled in Holland, Belgium, and England, where he performed at the Philharmonic concert of Feb. 26, 1816, and afterwards became an ordinary member of the Society. From 1821 to 1831 he was leader of the band at the Grand Opéra; from 1825 he filled the same place in the Royal Band; in 1833 he made a final tour through Switzerland and part of Italy. He died Sept. 15, 1842, working to the end with unremitting freshness. He was the last representative of the great classical Paris school of violin-playing. After him the influence of Paganini's style became paramount in France, and Baillot's true disciples and followers in spirit were, and are, only to be found among the violinists of the modern German school. His playing was distinguished by a noble powerful tone, great neatness of execution, and a pure, elevated, truly musical style. An excellent solo-player, he was unrivalled at Paris as interpreter of the best classical chamber-music. Mendelssohn and Hiller both speak in the highest terms of praise of Baillot aa a quartett-player. An interesting account of some of his personal traits will be found in a letter of the former, published in 'Goethe and Mendelssohn'
- 'Come il più antico e virtuoso della Cappella.'