the Club required the members to take the chair in turns at the dinners which were held at the Thatched House Tavern every Tuesday from February to June, except in Passion and Easter weeks. The successive secretaries of the Club were Warren (1761–94), S.Webbe (1794–1812), Sale (1812–28), R. Leete (1828–36), Jas. Elliott (1836–52), O. Bradbury (1852–73), E. Land (1859–76). Webbe's glees 'Hail! Star of Brunswick' and 'The Mighty Conqueror' were composed specially for George IV, who invariably took his call and sang in his glee; and the late Duke of Cambridge attended to the last year of his life and rarely omitted his call, one of his favourite glees being Webbe's 'Glorious Apollo.' In 1861 the Club celebrated its centenary with much vigour, and to commemorate the event offered a silver goblet for the best four-part glee, which was awarded to Mr. W. H. Cummings for 'Song should breathe.' The present subscription is ten guineas each season, and the meetings are held fortnightly at Willis's Rooms from Easter to July.
[ C. M. ]
CATEL, Charles Simon, born June 1773 at l'Aigle (Orne); began his studies very early under Sacchini, Gobert, and Gossec, in the 'Ecole royale de chant et de déclamation,' at Paris, [Conservatoire de Musique.] In 1787 he was made accompanist and 'professeur-adjoint' of the School, and in 1790 accompanist at the Opera. The same year he became chief, conjointly with Gossec, of the band of the Garde Nationale, for which he wrote a vast quantity of military music, which was adopted throughout the revolutionary army. His first work of public note was a 'De profundis' for the funeral of Gouvion in 1792. Another was a Hymn of Victory on the battle of Fleurus (June 26, 94), written for chorus with wind accompaniment only. On the formation of the Conservatoire in 95 Catel was made professor of harmony. He immediately began the compilation of his 'Traité d'harmonie,' which was published in 1802, and remained for many years the sole text-book of France. In 1810 he became one of the Inspectors of the Conservatoire, a post which he retained till the suspension of that institution in 1814. In 17 he was elected Member of the Institut, in the room of Monsigny, and in 24 Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. He died at Paris Nov. 29, 1830. Catel wrote largely for the stage—'Semiramis' (1802), 'L'Auberge de Bagnères' (1807), 'Les Bayadères' (1810), and other operas in 1808, 1814, 1817, and 1818. These have the merit of elegance and purity, but they were not successful; the public insisted on recognising Catel as a savant and a professor, and prejudged his works as 'learned music.' On one occasion Napoleon, who had a singular taste for soft and ineffective music, had the 'Bayadères' performed with all the instruments muted and every mark of expression suppressed—a very severe trial for any opera. Besides his theatrical and military music Catel wrote Symphonies for wind only, Hymns and Choral Pieces, Quintets and Quartets for strings and wind, Songs, Solfeggi, etc.; but it is by his Treatise on Harmony, by his great practical sense and ability, and by his character for goodness and probity that he will be known to posterity.
His treatise is founded on those of Kirnberger and Türk, and at once superseded the more artificial and complicated theories of Rameau, which had till that time reigned supreme in France.
[ G. C. ]
CATELANI, Angelo, musician and writer on music, born at Guastalla March 30, 1811. He received his first instruction from the organist of the place, and afterwards at Modena from Giuseppe Asioli and M. Fusco. In 31 he entered the Conservatoire of Naples, then under Zingarelli, and became the special pupil of Donizetti and Crescentini. From 31 to 37 he was director of the theatre at Messina, and finally settled at Modena, where he was living a few years ago as keeper of the Este Library. Catelani is the author of three or four operas, as well as of a Requiem and other pieces of church music; but his claim to mention rests on his archæological works—Notice on P. Aron (1851); on N. Vincentino (1851); 'Epistolario di autori celebri in musica' (1852–4); 'Bibliografia di due stampe ignote di 0. Petrucci da Fossombrone' (1856)—a treatise on the two first pieces of music printed from type; Delia vita e delle opere di Orazio Vecchi (1858); Ditto di Claudio Merula da Correggio (1860); Ditto di Alessandro Stradella (Modena, Vincenzi, 1866). [App. p.583 "he died at S. Martino di Muguano, Sept. 5, 1866."]
[ G. ]
CATENACCI, a seconda donna, appeared in 1784 at the King's Theatre in Anfossi's 'Issipile,' in 'Le due Gemelle' and the 'Demofoonte' of Bertoni. She was re-engaged in 1786, and sang with Mara and Rubinelli in the 'Virginia' of Tarchi, under the direction of Cherubini.
[ J. M. ]
CATERS. The name given by change ringers to changes on nine bells. The word should probably be written quaters, as it is meant to denote the fact that four couples of bells change their places in the order of ringing.
[ C. A. W. T. ]
CATHEDRAL MUSIC. Music composed for use in English Cathedral Service since the Reformation.
Just as the Reformed Liturgy was composed of prayers, versicles, responses, and other elements which, though in a different language, had formed the basis of the church services for centuries, so the music to which the new services were sung was not so much an innovation as an inheritance from earlier times: precedents can be found for the greater part of it in the pre-Reformation church music. The truth of this will appear if we compare the style of church music used in England at the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th centuries with what was introduced about 1550 as an accompaniment to the reformed liturgy. Our inferences as to the music of the former date must be drawn chiefly from breviaries and antiphonaries with musical notes, from compositions for the church, such as masses and motets, and from treatises on music. We learn from these sources that the