Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/353

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and composed sonatas, caprices, rondeaux, and a collection of studies called 'L'Indispensable' for the same instrument. He contributed well-written articles to 'Le Pianiste' a musical journal (Paris 1834 and 1835).

[ M. C. C. ]

CHAUNTER. The highest pipe of the bagpipe, from which the 'chaunt' or melody is produced, as opposed to the drones, which each speak only to a single note. [Bagpipe.]

[ W. H. S. ]

CHECK (Fr. L'Attrape, La Chaise; Ital. Ribatto or Paramartello; Ger. Fänger), an important member in the action of a grand pianoforte, consisting of an upright of thick wire, bearing an almost spade-shaped head of leather or some light wood covered with leather. It is fixed in the back part of the key behind the hammer, and its duty is to catch the hammer when it falls a certain distance away from the string, and hold it until it is released by the finger of the player allowing the key to rise. In cottage pianofortes or pianinos that have check actions the check is placed before the hammer, and a stud projecting from the butt of the hammer comes in contact with the check. [ Pianoforte.]

[ A. J. H. ]

CHEESE, G. J., organist of Leominster in 1771, and subsequently organist and professor of the pianoforte in London, published 'Practical Rules for Playing and Teaching the Pianoforte and Organ.'

[ W. H. H. ]

CHELARD, Hippolyte André Jean Baptiste, born Feb. i, 1789, in Paris, son of a musician at the Grand Opéra, was destined for the musical profession from his childhood, and studied at the Conservatoire under R. Kreutzer for the violin, and Gossec, Méhul, and Cherubini for composition. Having won the 'Grand Prix' for composition [App. p.584 adds "1811"] he went to Italy, and studied church music under Baini and Zingarelli in Rome, and dramatic music under Paisiello and Fioravanti at Naples. He produced his first work, a comic opera, 'La casa da vendere,' at Naples in 1815. On his return to Paris he became a violinist at the Grand Opéra, and gave lessons, composing diligently at the same time. After infinite trouble his tragic opera of 'Macbeth' (libretto by Rouget de l'Isle) was produced at the Grand Opéra (June 29, 1827), but it was soon removed from the boards, and Chelard left Paris for Munich, where the success of 'Macbeth' was so decided, that the King of Bavaria made him his chapel-master. He returned to Paris, and remained there till the Revolution of 1830 drove him back to Munich to become widely known as a composer and leader. In 1831 he led the Thuringian Festival at Erfurt. In 1832 and 1833 he was in London conducting the German opera company, of which Schröder-Devrient, and Haitzinger were members.[1] In 1836 he was employed as theatre and concert director at Augsburg, and in 1840 succeeded Hummel as court Kapellmeister at Weimar. One of the events of this time was the arrival of Berlioz in 1843; and it is pleasant to remember that it was Chelard who urged the eccentric Frenchman to visit Mendelssohn at Leipsic, and 'made him blush' at the suggestion that his old friend would probably not be glad to see him. ('Voyage musicale,' Lettre 4.) He was succeeded by Liszt in 1852, but he continued to the close of his life at Weimar, and died in 1861 [App. p.584 "Feb 12"]. He composed several other operas, but none so successful as 'Macbeth.' 'Hermanns-Schlacht' (Munich, 1835) is a solid and carefully written work in the German style. His operas, though full of merit, and effective in their day, are no longer performed; the overture to 'Macbeth' alone is occasionally heard at concerts. While he clung to the style of French romantic opera, he strove somewhat ostentatiously to adopt that of the German school. But he wanted the power to enable him to weld these conflicting elements into a harmonious whole.

[ A. M. ]

CHELL, William, Mus. Bac., successively lay vicar, prebendary, and precentor of Hereford Cathedral, graduated in music at Oxford in 1524. He was author of two works, entitled 'Musicæ practicæ Compendium,' and 'de Proportionibus Musicis.' [App. p.584 & 5 "the works mentioned in the article appear to be nothing but copies of the treatises of John de Muris, Otteby (Hothby), and others. He was Precentor of Hereford in 1554, but after the accession of Elizabeth was deprived of all his cathedral appointments. (Dict. of Nat. Biog.)]

[ W. H. H. ]

CHERUBINI, Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobi Salvatore, born in Florence, Sept. 14, 1760, son of a musician at the Pergola theatre. His musical faculty was evident from the first. 'I began,' says he, in the Preface to his autograph Catalogue, 'to learn music at six, and composition at nine. The first from my father, the second from Bartolomeo and Alessandro Felici, and after their death from Bizzarri and J. Castrucci.' His first work was a Mass and Credo in D, for four voices and accompaniment, and by the time he was sixteen he had composed 3 Masses, 2 Dixits, a Magnificat, a Miserere, and a Te Deum, besides an Oratorio, 3 Cantatas, and other smaller works. In 1777 or 8 the Grand Duke, afterwards the Emperor Leopold II, granted him an allowance that he might study under Sarti at Bologna. Thither Cherubini went, and there he remained for four years, thoroughly acquiring the old Italian contrapuntal style, and gaining that proficiency in polyphonic writing in which no composer since his time has equalled him, unless it be Mendelssohn. The compositions given in the Catalogue[2] under 1778 and 9 are all Antiphons written on Canti fermi, à la Palestrina. With the early part of 1780, however, this stops. His first opera, 'Quinto Fabio,' was written during that summer and produced at Alessandria, and for the next fourteen years operas and dramatic music seem to have engaged almost his entire attention:—1782, 'Armida' (Florence), 'Adriano in Siria' (Leghorn'), 'Il Messenzio' (Florence); 1783, 'Il Quinto Fabio' (Rome), 'Lo sposo di tre' (Venice); 1784, 'L'Idalide'

  1. Fétis says that Malibran sang in his 'Student' to 1834.
  2. The Catalogue referred to here and elsewhere in this article was compiled by Cherubini himself, with an interesting Preface, and published after his death by Bottée de Toulmon, under the title of 'Notice des manuscrits autographes de la musique composée par feu M. L. C. Z. S. Cherubini. etc.. etc., Paris, chez les principaux Editeurs de musique.' 1843. It has been reprinted by Mr. Bellasis in his 'Memorials.'