strict rules of counterpoint. In 1852 he went to Weimar and joined the young artists who, under Liszt's leadership, were striving to carry out the ideas of Richard Wagner. They formed eventually a separate school, to which the name 'New-German' became attached. It was here that Cornelius became acquainted with Wagner's works, while with Liszt he formed ties of the closest intimacy. His active and versatile pen was of great service to the young enterprise. He strove to elucidate the new principles in the 'Neue Zeitschrift für Musik,' the organ of the party, both by original articles and by translating a series of lectures given in French by Liszt. As a practical embodiment of the new views he composed a comic opera, 'Der Barbier von Bagdad,' of which only a single performance took place (1858). Liszt resented the judgment of the public, and left Weimar, which ceased to be the centre of the school. In 1858 Cornelius went to Vienna, where Wagner was then living, and became intimate with him also. When King Ludwig II invited Wagner to Munich, Cornelius followed him there (1865), first as reader to the king, and later as professor of harmony and rhetoric at the Conservatoire, after it had been transformed into the 'Königliche Musik-schule' with H. von Bülow as principal. Cornelius's grand opera the 'Cid,' produced at Weimar (1865), may be considered as the fruit of his intercourse with Wagner. He was working at another, entitled 'Gunlöd'—of which, after Wagner's example, he had himself taken the subject from the legends of the Edda—when he died at Mayence, Oct. 24, 1874 [App. p.598 "Oct. 26"]. The effect of his dramatic works in furthering the Wagner movement cannot fairly be estimated, as the public have had no real opportunity of judging of them. His published works, principally vocal, show him to have had much feeling. The following deserve mention:—'Duets for Soprano and Baritone,' op. 6; 'Lieder-cyclus,' op. 3; 'Weihnachtslieder,' op. 8; and 'Trauerchöre' (for men's voices), op. 9. Most of these are settings of his own poems. He published a volume called 'Lyrische Poesien' in 1861. Some of his works will shortly be published; and Gunlöd is to be completed from his ample notes by his friend Hofbauer of Munich. [App. p. 598 "on Oct. 28, 1887, his opera, 'Der Barbier von Bagdad,' was reproduced with success at Coburg."]
[ A. M. ]
CORNEMUSE. The Italian and French name for the Bagpipe.
CORNET. (Ital. Cornetto; Fr. Cornet à pistons). The name was formerly given to a rude reed instrument of the oboe family [App. p.599 "Zinke, vol. iv. p.511"], but ia now applied to a brass instrument with cupped mouthpiece, intermediate between the French horn, trumpet, and bugle, of comparatively modern construction, and formerly called also Cornopean. It possesses the usual scale of open or harmonic notes, as follows:—
the real fundamental being the octave below the lowest here given, which is never made use of.
It is also possible to produce four notes above the top C, corresponding to those commonly used in the trumpet; but for the larger bore and mouthpiece of the cornet they are difficult, and comparatively unused. The French horn, on the other hand, standing an octave lower than the cornet, obtains two harmonic sounds, the B♭ and C, above the G last given.
The chief characteristic of the cornet is the use of valves or pistons for the purpose of increasing its compass and bridging over the gaps between the natural harmonic sounds. The valves are usually three in number. They consist essentially of mechanism, by means of which a bye-way or diversion, somewhat longer than the direct road, is opened to the vibrating column of air. The first valve thus depresses the pitch by a tone, the second by a semitone, the third by three semitones. They can be used singly or together. In this manner the lower limit is removed downward to F♯ in the bass stave, and six semitones are obtained by the use of the pistons singly or in combination:—
By the same method all notes intervening between the open notes of the natural scale can be provided for. In the absence of such a contrivance, the early composers for the trumpet were driven to make use of the superior octave, in which a consecutive scale of open notes can be obtained. This is well seen in Handel's solos for the trumpet. It materially increases the brilliancy and the difficulty of the older instrument.
The cornet was originally made with several 'crooks,' for the keys of A, B♭, A♭, G, C, and even others; but it has been customary of late to dispense with all but the A and B♭ crooks, which correspond to the clarinets of similar name.
The bore of the instrument is intermediate in size between the small cylindrical tube and restricted bell of the trumpet, and the broad conical form of the bugle. The tone stands in corresponding relation to those instruments, lacking the penetration of the former, and the smooth hornlike fulness of the latter.
The cornet has not yet been much employed in the scores of classical music, though occasionally used in orchestras instead of the trumpet. In operas an instance of its use which will be familiar is the air 'When other lips' in Balfe's 'Bohemian Girl.'
[ W. H. S. ]
CORNET. This name is given to several kinds of organ stops; among others to pedal reed-stops of 4 and 2 feet length in numerous Dutch and German organs. A 'Cornette' of 4 feet occurs in the cathedral organ at Kronstadt; a 'Cornetin' of 2 feet in the 'Old Church' organ at Amsterdam; and a 'Cornettino,' 2 feet, in the music hall organ at Boston in America.
The great organ Solo Cornet comprised either 5, 4, or 3 ranks of pipes. When of the former