Farmer, Giles Farnaby, Edmund Hooper, Edmund Johnson and George Kirbye. Two other editions of the work appeared in 1594 and 1604. This collection was the first in which some of the tunes were called by distinctive names—'Glassenburie,' 'Kentish,' and 'Cheshire.' Este was a member of the Company of Stationers, to which in 1604 he gave a piece of plate of 31 oz. weight to be excused from serving some office of the Company. In the early part of 1609 he described himself on the title-pages of his productions as 'Thomas Este alias Snodham,' and before the end of the year and ever after used the latter name only. In 1600 he described himself as 'The Assigne of Thomas Morley,' and in 1609 as 'The Assigne of William Barley,' having acquired the interest in the patent granted to Morley in 1598 and by him assigned, or perhaps only licensed, to Barley. The latest work known to have been printed by Este appeared in 1624, and it is probable that he died shortly afterwards. [App. p.629 "He died shortly before 1609, in which year a large number of his 'copyrights,' as they would be called, were transferred to T. Snodham. [ Dict. of Nat. Biog. ]"] His widow, Lucretia Este, died in 1631, having bequeathed £20 to purchase a piece of plate to be presented to the Stationers' Company. The most important works printed and published by Este were—
Adson's Courtly Masquing Ayres, 1621; Atley's Ayres, 1622; Bateson's Madrigals, 1604 and 1618; Byrd's Psalmes, Sonets and Songs, 1588, Songes of sundry natures 1589, Cantiones Sacræ, 1589 and 1591, Gradualia, 1607 and 1610, and Psalmes, Songs and Sonnets, 1611; Campion's Ayres, 1610 and 1612; Croce's Musica Sacra, Newly Englished, 1608; Danyel's Songs, 1606; Dowland's Second Book of Ayres, 1600; Michael Este's 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th Sets of Madrigals, Anthems, etc., 1604–1624; Ferrabosco's Ayres, 1609; Orlando Gibbons's Madrigal, 1612; Jones's First Book of Ayres, 1601; Kirbye's Madrigals, 1597; Maynard's XII Wonder's of the World, 1611; Morley's Canzonets, 1593, Madrigals, 1594, Ballets, 1595, Canzonets, 1595, Madrigals, 1598, Triumphes of Oriana, 1601, and Consort Lessons, 1611; John Mundy's Songs and Psalms, 1594; Martin Pierson's Private Musicke, 1620; Pilkington's Ayres, 1605, and Madrigals (2nd set), 1624; Robinson's Schoole of Musicke, 1603; Rossetor's Lessons for Consort, 1609; Robert Tailour's Sacred Hymnes, 1615; Thomas Tomkins's Songs, 1622; Vantor's Madrigals, 1619; Ward's Madrigals, 1613; Watson's Madrigals, 1600; Weelkes' Madrigals, 1597, 1598, and 1600; Wilbye's Madrigals, 1598 and 1608; Yonge's Musica Transalpina, 1586 and 1697; and Youll's Canzonets, 1608.
The Whole Book of Psalms was published in score by the Musical Antiquarian Society in 1844, edited with a Preface, by Dr. Rimbault.
[ W. H. H. ]
ESTE, in N. E. Italy, between Padua and Rovigo. Two musical academies—'Degli Eccitati' and 'Degli Atestini'—were established in Este in 1575. The family of the Este, always liberal patrons of the fine arts, encouraged especially the revival of music. Francesco Patrizzi, a professor in the latter of these two academies (born 1530—died 1590), in dedicating one of his works to Lucrezia d'Este, daughter of Ercole II, the reigning Duke, ascribes the revival of music in Italy to the House of Este, because Guido d'Arezzo was a native of Pomposa in their dominions, and because such famous musicians as Fogliano, Giusquino (Josquin), Adriano, and Cipriano, first found favour and support from the dukes of Este.
[ C. M. P. ]
ESTHER. Handel's first English oratorio; words by S. Humphreys, founded on Racine's Esther. Written for the Duke of Chandos, who paid Handel £1000 for it, and first performed at Cannons Aug. 29, 1720. Performed again, in action, under Bernard Gates—in private Feb. 23, 1732, and in public at the King's Theatre, Haymarket, May 2, 32, with 'additions' not specified. It was occasionally performed up to 1757 (when 'My heart is inditing' and 'Zadok the Priest' were interpolated into the performance), and then, lay on the shelf till Nov. 6, 1875, when it was revived at the Alexandra Palace. The overture was for long played annually at the 'Festival of the Sons of the Clergy' at St. Paul's.
ESTWICK, Rev. Sampson, B.D., born 1657, was one of the children of the Chapel Royal under Captain Henry Cooke. Upon quitting the chapel on the breaking of his voice he went to Oxford, took holy orders and became one of the chaplains of Christ Church. In 1692 he was appointed a minor canon of St. Paul's. On Nov. 17, 1696, he preached at Christ Church, Oxford, 'upon occasion of the Anniversary Meeting of the Lovers of Musick on St.Cæcilia's day,' a sermon upon 'The Usefulness of Church Musick,' which was printed in the following year. In 1701 he was appointed vicar of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, which he resigned in 1712 for the rectory of St. Michael, Queenhithe. Estwick composed several odes for performance at the Acts at Oxford, and other pieces still in MS. He died Feb. 1739.
[ W. H. H. ]
ETOILE DU NORD, L', opera in 3 acts, principal characters Peter the Great and Catherine; words by Scribe, music by Meyerbeer, comprising many numbers from his 'Feldlager in Schlesien.' Produced at the Opéra Comique Feb. 16, 1854; and in England, as La Stella del Nord, at Covent Garden, July 19, 1855.
ÉTUDES, studies, exercises, sonatas, caprices, lessons. The large number of works extant under these heads for pianoforte, violin, violoncello, and in sundry instances for other orchestral instruments, are in a large measure mere supplements to the respective instruction-books. They may be divided into two kinds—pieces contrived with a view to aid the student in mastering special mechanical difficulties pertaining to the technical treatment of his instrument, like the excellent pianoforte Études of Clementi and Cramer; and pieces wherein, over and above such an executive purpose, which is never lost sight of, some characteristic musical sentiment, poetical scene, or dramatic situation susceptible of musical interpretation or comment is depicted, as in certain of Moscheles' 'Characteristische Studien,' or the Études of Chopin, Liszt, or Alkan.
The distinction between these two classes of etudes closely resembles the difference recognised by painters between a tentative sketch for a figure, a group, or a landscape, which aims at rendering some poetical idea whilst attending particularly to the mechanical difficulties accruing from the task in hand, and a mere drawing after casts or from life with a view to practice and the attainment of manipulative facility.
An étude proper, be it only a mechanical exercise or a characteristic piece, is dintinguished from all other musical forms by the fact that it is invariably evolved from a single phrase or motif, be it of a harmonic or melodious character, upon which the changes are rung. Thus many of Bach's Preludes in the 'wohltemperirte Clavier,' and the like, could be called études without a misnomer.