and Botzen. In 1795 he entered the University of Innspruck, but on the formation of the Landsturm in 96 served as a volunteer, and won the gold 'Tapferkeits-medaille.' In 1801 he was in Vienna, studied under Vogler and Albrechtsberger, and was recommended as a teacher by Haydn, Gyrowetz, and distinguished patrons. He next accompanied Count Finnian to Prague, and devoted himself entirely to composition. In 1809 he was at Dresden and Leipzig, revisited his home, and in the following year settled for a time in Darmstadt to renew his studies under Vogler. Weber and Meyerbeer were his fellow-pupils, and the three formed a lasting friendship. Weber especially retained a sincere affection for him, took him to Mannheim and Heidelberg, where Gänsbacher assisted in his concerts, and at a later time proposed to him to compete for the vacant post of Court Capellmeister in Dresden. Meantime Gänsbacher lived alternately in Vienna, where he became acquainted with Beethoven, and Prague, where he assisted Weber with his 'Kampf und Sieg.' He also served in the war of 1813, went to Italy as captain in military service, and was even employed as a courier. This unsettled life at length came to a satisfactory end. At the time that Weber was suggesting his settling at Dresden, the Capellmeistership of the cathedral at Vienna fell vacant by the death of Preindl (Oct. 1823); Gänsbacher applied for it, was appointed, and remained there for life. He died July 13, 1844, universally respected both as a man and an artist. As a composer he belongs to the old school; his works are pleasing but betray by their solidity the pupil of Vogler and Albrechtsberger. His compositions number 216 in all, of which the greater part are sacred,—17 masses, 4 requiems, 2 Te Deums, offertories etc. He wrote also a symphony, several serenades, marches, and concerted pieces; pianoforte pieces with and without accompaniment; songs accompanied by various instruments; music to Kotzebue's 'Die Kreuzfahrer'; a Liederspiel, etc. Two requiems, 2 masses, and several smaller church works were published by Spina and Haslinger; 3 terzettos for 2 soprani and tenor (op. 4) by Schlesinger; Schiller's 'Erwartung' by Simrock; and sonatas and trios by various publishers. A song of his is given in Ayrton's 'Sacred Minstrelsy.'
His son Dr. Joseph, born 1829, is now a valued teacher of singing in Vienna, and professor at the Conservatoire.
[ C. F. P. ]
GAFORI, Franchino, or Franchinus Gafurius, born at Lodi Jan. 14, 1451, a priest and a writer on music. His first instructor was Goodendag, or, as he latinised his name, Bonadies. Circumstances led him to Mantua, Verona, Genoa, and in 1478, in company with the fugitive doge Adorno, to Naples. There he found Tinctor and two other great Belgian musicians, Gamier and Hycart; and there he remained for more than two years till driven back to Lodi by war and the plague. He passed a short time as maestro di capella at Monticello and Bergamo, and in 1484 became attached to the cathedral at Milan, where he died June 24, 1523, still in full vigour. His works are as follow:—'Theoricum opus armonice discipline' (Naples 1480); 'Practica musicæ' (Milan 1496); 'Angelicum et divinum opus musice' (Milan 1508, in Italian); 'De harmonica musicorum instrumentorum opus' (Milan 1518); 'Apologia ad versus Spatarium' (Turin 1520). Works with other titles are but editions or abridgments of the above. Though a man of much learning and research, and in some respects a pedant—witness the headings of his chapters and the terms he coined—Gafori was no mere archæologist. He addressed himself to the wants of his time, and in consequence enjoyed for long a wide and special authority. His great drawback was his overweening conceit, often displayed in the very titles of his books. Hawkins has devoted chapters 72, 73, 74, and 75, of his History to him, and has given copious extracts from the 'Practica musicæ,' his most important work, and the 'Apologia.'
[ G. ]
[App. p.643–4 "The following is a short list of the various editions of the valuable works of this writer:—
A. 'Theoricum opus musicae discipline.' Franciscus de Dino: Naples, 1480. 4to. 115 leaves.
Gerber and Becker quote another work, 'De Effectibus … Musicae,' as published in this year. The mistake arose from the title of the first chapter being taken as that of the whole work.
B. 'Theorica Musice.' Philippus Mantegatius: Milan, 1492. fol. 64 leaves.
The 2nd edition of A.
C. 'Practica Musice.' Guillermus Signerre: Milan, 1496. fol. 111 leaves.
Becker states that an Italian translation of this work was published by Gotardus de Ponte in 1500, but no copy is known. It is probably a mistake arising from a confusion with H, which is written in Italian.
D. 'Musice utriusque Cantus practical Angelus Britannicus: Brescia, 1497. fol. 111 leaves.
The 2nd edition of C.
E. 'Practica Musicæ utriusque Cantus.' Bernadinus Misinta de Papia: Brescia, 1502. fol. 111 leaves.
The 3rd edition of C.
F. 'Practica Musicæ utriusque Cantus.' Augustinus de Zannis de Portesio: Venice, 1512. fol. 82 leaves.
The 4th edition of C.
[G. 'Practica Musicæ,' etc. Venice, 1522. fol.]
Mentioned in Brunet's Manuel as the 5th edition of C, but otherwise unknown.
H. 'Angelicum ac divinum Opus Musice.' Gotardus de Ponte: Milan, 1508. fol. 48 leaves.
Brunet states that an edition of this appeared in 1500, but no copy was known to Fétis, nor has been discovered since, so Brunet's statement is probably a mistake.
I. 'De Harmonia Musicorum Instrumentorum.' Gotardus Pontanus: Milan, 1518, fol. 106 leaves.
Draudius, followed by Walther, Gerber, and Becker, mentions a work called 'Practica Musica' as published in 1518: but Fétis points out that this arises from a misdescription of I.
K. 'Apologia Franchini Gafuri ... adversus Joannem Spatarium.' A. de Vicomercato: Turin, 1520. 10 leaves.
Copies of all these editions (with the exception of G, the existence of which is doubtful) are to be found in the British Museum. Copies of B, C, F, H and I are in Anderson's College, Glasgow, and of C and I in the Royal College of Music.
[ W. B. S. ]
GAGLIANO, a celebrated family of violin-makers at Naples. Alessandro, the first, worked from about 1695 to 1725. His work, like that of his sons, is good and substantial, but it exhibits the same unattractive greyish-yellow varnish which was used by the sons. Alexander calls himself 'alumnus' of Stradivarius, and all the Gaglianos worked more or less on the Stradivari model. His sons, Nicolo (1700–40) and Gennaro (1710—50), made a large number of good instruments. His grandson, Ferdinando (1736–81), son of Nicholas, like all his Italian contemporaries, exhibits a marked decline. The later Gaglianos established a manufactory of violin-strings, which to this day enjoys a world-wide reputation.
[ P. D. ]
GALEAZZI, Francesco, a violin-player, born at Turin in 1738 (Fétis says 1758) and for many years leader of the band at the Teatro Valle at Rome. He deserves special notice, not so much as a composer of numerous instrumental works, as the author of one of the earliest methodical instruction-books for the violin, which bears the title of 'Elementi teoretico-practici di musica, con un saggio sopra l'arte di suonare il violino, analizzata,' Roma 1791 e 1796. He died, according to Fétis, in 1819.
[ P. D. ]
GALERATTI, Catterina, a contralto singer, who appeared in the early times of Italian Opera in London. In 1714 she made her début, Jan. 9, in the pasticcio 'Dorinda.' She sang also in 'Creso,' in a revival of 'Rinaldo,' and in 'Arminio,' and had a benefit, 'by command,' that year. In 1713, Mar. 16, she signed a petition (in the possession of the writer), together with Mrs. Barbier, Margherita de l'Épine, T. Robinson, and Valentino Urbani, for the better regulation of their benefits. Six years later, we find her again singing in 'Astarto,' 'Radamisto,' and 'Numitor.' In the next year, 1721, she took prominent parts in 'Muzio Scevola,' ' Arsinoe,' and 'L'Odio e L'Amore,' after which her name does not occur again.
[ J. M. ]
GALIMATHIAS. A French term of very