modern reprints—or, rather, re-compilations—is a Gradual, based upon the editions of 1599 and 1614, and printed, at Mechlin, in 1848, under the patronage of Cardinal Sterckx. A similar volume, intended for the use of the Dioceses of Rheims, and Cambrai, appeared in 1851: and a third, prepared for the press by Père Lambillotte, was published, by his executors, in 1857. Far more important, however, than any of these, is the latest edition, carefully revised by the Sacred Congregation of Rites, and first printed, at Ratisbon, by Friedrich Pustet, in 1871, under special privileges granted by His Holiness, Pope Pius IX.
The contents of the Gradual—always printed in Gregorian notation—are classed in five principal divisions: viz. the 'Proprium de Tempore,' 'Proprium de Sanctis,' 'Commune Sanctorum,' 'Ordinarium Missæ,' and 'Modus Respondendi.' Of these, the first three contain the words and music of the Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Versus, Tract, Sequence, Offertory, and Communion, for every day throughout the ecclesiastical year. The Ordinarium Missæ contains the Asperges me, Kyrie, Gloria in Excelsis, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus, and Agnus Dei, for festivals of every degree of solemnity. The Modus respondendi contains the Sursum Corda, Sed libera nos a malo, and other Responses usually sung at High Mass. The notation of the Prefationes, and Pater noster, being given, in full, in the Missal, is not repeated in the Gradual; which, indeed, is intended rather for the use of the Choir, than that of the Celebrant.
[ W. S. R. ]
GRADUS AD PARNASSUM. The title of two eminent progressive works on music. 1. Fux's treatise on composition and counterpoint—'Gradus ad Parnassum, sive manuductio ad compositionem musicæ regularem, methoda nova ac certa, nondum ante tam exacto ordine in lucem edita: elaborata a Joanne Josepho Fux' (Vienna 1725; 1 vol. folio). It was translated into German by Mizler (Leipsic 1742), into Italian by Manfredi (Carpi 1761), and into English, 'Practical rules for learning Composition translated from a work entitled Gradus ad Parnassum, written originally in Latin by John Joseph Feux, late chief composer to the Roman Emperor Charles VI.—Welcker, 10 Hay Market' (a thin folio with no date). This contains, in addition to the exercises in the text, a Kyrie and Amen from the Missa Vicissitudinis.
2. Clementi's well-known work 'Gradus ad Parnassum, ou l'art de jouer le Pianoforte demontré par des Exercises dans le style sévère et dans le style élégant. Composé et dedié à Madame la Princesse Wolkonsky, née Wolkonsky, par Muzio Clementi, membre de l'Academie Royale de Stockholm.' (Milan, Ricordi.)
It is in two parts or volumes, containing in all 100 exercises. Some of these are marked as having been published before, and extended and revised by the author. Thus Ex. 14 is headed 'extrait par l'auteur de ses Duos à 4 mains, œuvre xiv, publié a Londres en 1784. Tulit alter honores. Virg. apud Donat.' Ex. 39. Adagio in B♭, is entitled 'Scena patetica,' and so on. The work has at the beginning an English motto from Dr. Johnson—'Every art is best taught by example.' Clementi published an Appendix to the Gradus, containing 134 Exercises, Gavottes, Gigues, Airs with Variations, etc., partly his own, but chiefly by other composers. They are arranged, each key with its relative minor—usually a prelude or preludes by Clementi, followed by pieces.
[ G. ]
GRAHAM, George Farquhar, son of Lieut.-Col. Humphrey Graham, was born in Edinburgh in 1790 [App. p.654 "Dec. 29, 1789"] and educated in the High School and University there. He studied music as an amateur, and was to a great degree self-taught. In 1815 he and George Hogarth acted as joint secretaries of the first Edinburgh Musical Festival, and in the next year Graham published 'An Account of the First Edinburgh Musical Festival, to which is added Some General Observations on Music.' He passed some years in Italy in pursuit of musical knowledge. He composed and published some ballads, and contributed the article 'Music' to the 7th edition of the 'Encyclopædia Britannica.' The article was reprinted separately in 1838, with the addition of an Introduction and Appendix under the title of 'An Essay on the Theory and Practice of Musical Composition.' About the same time he assisted in bringing out the 'Skene MS.,' and contributed an interesting paper to the appendix. [See Dauney.] He wrote the article 'Organ' for the 8th edition of the 'Encyclopædia Britannica.' In 1848–9 he furnished historical, biographical, and critical notices to 'The Songs of Scotland, adapted to their appropriate melodies.' He died in Edinburgh, March 12, 1867.
[ W. H. H. ]
GRAN CASSA OR GRAN TAMBURO, the Italian term for the bass-drum. [Drum, 3.]
[ V. de P. ]
GRANCINO, Paolo, a violin-maker of the second rank. Born at Milan, he learnt his art under Nicolo Amati at Cremona. His violins are dated from 1665–1690. His son Giovanni (1696–1715), who dates 'from the sign of the Crown' in the Contrada Larga of Milan, was a maker of higher merit. His violins, tenors, and violoncellos, are usually of a large flat pattern, and present a development of the Amati model analogous to that of Stradivari. His sons Giam-Battista and Francesco carried on his business (1715–1746) under the title of 'Fratelli Grancini.'
[ P. D. ]
GRAND. A word much in use in England till within a few years to denote a classical composition of full dimensions or for full orchestra. Thus the 12 Symphonies written by Haydn for Salamon were known as 'Grand.' A grand sonata or a grand concerto meant one in complete classical form. It probably originated in the French grand or German grosse. (See Beethoven's Sonatas, Op. 13, 26, 28, 106, 115, and most of his symphonies, etc.)
[ G. ]
- The Mechlin and Ratisbon Graduale are sold, In London, by Messrs. Burns & Gates. 17 Portman Street.