where. (Dickson's Cat. of Musical MSS. at Ely ; Rimbault, Bib. Madrigaliana.)
[ E. F. R. ]
AMNER, Ralph, the son of John Amner, before mentioned. It appears from the Registers of Ely that he was elected a lay-clerk there in 1604, and was succeeded in 1609 by Michael Este, the well-known composer. Amner was then probably admitted into holy orders, as he is styled 'Vicar,' i.e. Minor Canon. Upon the death of John Amery, a gentleman of the Chapel Royal, July 18, 1623, 'Ralphe Amner, a basse from Winsore, was sworn in his place.' He died at Windsor, March 3, 1663-4. In Hilton's 'Catch that Catch Can,' 1667, is 'a Catch in stead of an Epitaph upon Mr. Ralph Amner of Windsor, commonly called the Bull Speaker, who dyed 1664; the music composed by Dr. William Child.' (Reg. of Ely; Cheque-Book of Chapel Royal, Camd. Soc.).
[ E. F. R. ]
AMOREVOLI, Angelo, born at Venice, Sept. 16, 1716. After appearing at the principal opera-houses in Italy with brilliant success, where he was admired for his fine voice and vocalisation, and the perfection of his shake, he was engaged for the Court Theatre at Dresden. He sang for the Earl of Middlesex at the opera in London in 1741; but returned to Dresden, where he died, Nov. 15, 1798.
[ J. M. ]
ANACKER, August Friedrich, born Oct. 17, 1790, at Freiberg in Saxony, son of a very poor shoemaker. As a scholar at the Gymnasium his musical faculty soon discovered itself, but his poverty kept him down, and it was not till a prize of 1300 thalers in a lottery fell to his share that he was able to procure a piano and music. The first piece he heard performed was Beethoven's Polonaise in C, and Beethoven became his worship through life. In 1813, after the battle of Leipsic, he went to that university, and acquired the friendship of Schicht, F. Schneider, and others of the best musicians. In 1822 he was made 'cantor' of his native place, and principal music-teacher in the normal school. From that time onwards for thirty years his course was one of ceaseless activity. No one ever worked harder or more successfully to make his office a reality. In 1823 he founded the Singakademie of Freiberg, and in 1830 started a permanent series of first-class subscription concerts; he formed a musical association among the miners of the Berg district, for whom he wrote numerous part-songs; and in short was the life and soul of the music of the place. At the same time he composed a mass of music of all kinds and all dimensions. But his music is nothing remarkable: it is the energy and devotion of the man that will make him remembered. He died at his post on August 21, 1854, full of honour and esteem. The only piece of Anacker's which has probably been printed in England is a 'Miner's Song' (four parts) in the collection called 'Orpheus,' No. 41.
[ G. ]
ANACREON, ou l'amour fugitif, an opera-ballet in two acts, the libretto by Mendouze, and the music by Cherubini, produced at the Opera in Paris on Oct. 4, 1803. It is now only known by its magnificent overture.
ANACREONTIC SOCIETY. The meetings of this aristocratic society, established by several noblemen and other wealthy amateurs, were held at the Crown and Anchor Tavern in the Strand towards the close of the last century. The concerts, in which the leading members of the musical profession took part as honorary members, were given fortnightly during the season, and were followed by a supper, after which the president or his deputy sang the constitutional song 'To Anacreon in Heaven.' This was succeeded by songs in every style, and by catches and glees sung by the most eminent vocalists of the day. The privilege of membership was greatly valued, and names were frequently placed on the list for a long period in advance. The society was dissolved in 1786, when Sir Richard Hankey was president, owing, as Parke states in his 'Musical Memoirs,' to the annoyance of the members at a restraint having been placed upon the performance of some comic songs which were considered unfit for the ears of the Duchess of Devonshire, the leader of the haut-ton of the day, who was present privately in a box specially fitted up under the orchestra. The members resigned one after another, and shortly afterwards the society was dissolved at a general meeting.
[ C. M. ]
ANALYSIS. The practice now prevalent in England of accompanying the titles and words of the music performed at concerts by an analysis of the music is one of comparatively recent date. The identity of the pieces in the programmes at the end of the last and the beginning of the present century is rarely certain. 'New Grand Overture, Haydn,' or 'Grand Overture, MS., Haydn,' is the usual designation of Haydn's symphonies as they were produced at Salomon's concerts in 1791, '92. The programmes of the Philharmonic Society are at first almost equally vague—'Symphony, Mozart,' 'Symphony, Beethoven,' 'Symphony, never performed, Beethoven,' is with rare exceptions the style in which the pièces de resistance at the Society's concerts are announced. It is not until the fifth season (1817) that the number or the key indicates which works the audience might expect to hear. The next step was to print on the fly-leaf of the programme the words of the vocal pieces, with, in the case of Spohr's 'Weihe der Töne' (Feb. 23, 1835), a translation of Pfeiffer's 'Ode,' or of the 'Pastoral Symphony' (May 11, 1835), some verses from Thomson's 'Seasons,' or at the first performance of the overture to 'Leonora,' No. 1 (due to Mendelssohn), a short account of the origin and dates of the four overtures.
[App. p.521 "It should be added that the first suggestion as to the desirability of explaining the structure of compositions to the audience was in a letter written to the 'Musical World' of Dec. 2, 1826, by the late C. H. Purday, Esq."]
The first attempt to assist amateurs to follow the construction of classical music during its performance which the writer has met with is that of Mr. Thomson, late Professor of Music in the University of Edinburgh, who in the year 1841, and even earlier, added analytical and historical notices of the pieces in the programmes of the concerts of the Professional Society of