Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 1.djvu/759

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tunes, voluntaries, pianoforte sketches, songs and part-songs, a few of which have been published.

His cousin, John Larkin Hopkins, Mus. Doc., born in Westminster in 1820 [App. p.679 "Nov. 25, 1819"], was a chorister of Westminster Abbey under James Turle. In 1841 he succeeded Ralph Banks as organist of Rochester. In 1842 he graduated Mus. Bac. at Cambridge. In 1856 he removed to Cambridge on being appointed organist to Trinity College and to the University. He proceeded Mus. Doc. in 1867. Hopkins composed many services and anthems, and published a collection of his anthems. In 1847 he edited, in conjunction with Rev. S. Shepherd, a collection of the Words of Anthems used in Rochester Cathedral. He died at Ventnor, April 25, 1873.

[ W. H. H. ]

HOPKINSON. The greater part of the pianoforte making of this country has centred in London, and the firm of J. & J. Hopkinson—though founded and at first carried on exclusively at Leeds—cannot now be quoted as an exception. Mr. John Hopkinson established his workshops in Leeds in 1842 [App. p.679 "1835"], and removed them to London in 1846. The warerooms were at first in Soho Square, and were in 1856 removed to Regent Street, where the business is now carried on. [App. p.679 "add that in 1882 the business was removed to 95 New Bond Street."] Mr. Hopkinson patented a repetition action for a grand pianoforte in 1850, and in 1862 he further patented a 'harmonic pedal,' producing the octave harmonics from the strings by the contact, at the exact half of the vibrating length, of a very slender strip of felt governed by a special pedal. The firm gained high distinction at the Exhibitions of 1862 and 1878—at the latter the Great Gold Medal. Mr. John Hopkinson retired in 1869, leaving his brother, Mr. James Hopkinson, the first place in the business. [App. p.679 "add that Messrs. John and James Hopkinson, sons of the member of the firm last mentioned, are the present heads of the house."]

[ A.J.H. ]

HOPPER. A name applied to the jack or escapement lever in the action of a pianoforte, or to the escapement lever with its backpiece, regulating screw, etc. complete. [See Grasshopper.] So named because this lever hops out of the notch against which its thrust has been directed; allowing the hammer to rebound, and leaving the string free to vibrate.

[ A.J.H. ]

HORN, FRENCH HORN (Fr. Cor, Cor de Chasse; Ger. Horn, Waldhorn; Ital. Corno, Corno di Caccia). One of the most characteristic and important instruments among those played by means of a cupped circular mouthpiece (Trumpet, Trombone, Cornet, etc.). It differs from all others of this family by the considerably greater length of its tube, the wider expansion of its bell, the spiral form in which its convolutions are arranged, the softer quality of its tone, and its great compass.

In its most modern shape it is composed of a tube 17 feet in length divided into three main sections—(1) the Body, comprising the lower two-thirds of the tube and a large everted bell, spreading out rapidly to a diameter of about fifteen inches; (2) a series of interchangeable rings, of smaller tubing, termed Crooks, progressive in length, forming about the upper third of the Instrument; and (3) the Mouthpiece, which is of different shape, size, and calibre from all kindred species of brass instruments.

Page 747 Horn (A Dictionary of Music and Musicians-Volume 1).png

Short intermediate crooks, intended for tuning purposes, are often interpolated between the body and the larger crook: the body itself carries a pair of U-shaped slides fitting with stiff friction into one another, for the purpose of finally and more accurately adjusting the pitch. This portion of the instrument is termed the 'tuning-slide,' and has been of late employed for the farther advantage of affording attachment to a set of valves, not dissimilar from those of the cornet, euphonium, or other valve instruments. [See Valves.] The slides of the tuning apparatus are sometimes utilised as a place of attachment for the different crooks, which then slip on in the middle of the instrument, instead of being affixed to a conical socket at the upper extremity of the body.

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The body of the horn has a length of 7 feet 4 inches; the crooks are of increasing length as they descend in pitch. The following are the dimensions of the crooks most in use, for which the writer is indebted to Mr. Köhler of Henrietta Street:—

A♮ . . . . . . 26 in. E . . . . . . . 63½ in.
A♭ . . . . . . 31½ in. E♭ . . . . . . 68¾ in.
G . . . . . . 40 in. D . . . . . . . 79 in.
F . . . . . . 55 in. C basso . . 105 in.

The crook for the C alto pitch, a minor third above A♮, and shorter in proportion, would, if in use, reduce the total length of the instrument to about 8 feet, while with that for the C basso pitch it is 16 feet and a fraction long.

The mouthpiece consists of a funnel-shaped tube of brass or silver, terminating at its upper extremity in a rounded ring of metal for the application of the lips. The bore tapers downwards