or Altus. The term was constantly used, in this sense, in the 13th and 14th centuries, and probably, still earlier.
[ W. S. R. ]
MOTIF (Germ. Motiv), a word which is in process of naturalization into English, and which has no less than three distinct meanings, according to which it will be found under separate heads: 1st, the German word originally means what we call 'figure,' that is, a short group of notes, 'which produce a single, distinct, and complete impression' [see Figure]; 2nd, it is used as a synonym for Subject, which see; 3rd, as equivalent to, and an abbreviation of, Leitmotiv, which has been fully treated.
[ J. A. F. M. ]
MOTION is change of pitch in successive sounds, when they are allotted to a single part or voice, or to groups of parts or voices which sound simultaneously. The motions of a single part are classified according as the successive steps do or do not exceed the limits of a degree of the scale at a time, the former being called 'disjunct,' and the latter 'conjunct' motion. The following examples illustrate the two forms:—
The independent motions of different parts sounding together constitute counterpoint, and are classified according to their relations, as 'contrary,' 'similar,' and 'oblique' motions. In the first the parts either distinctly converge or diverge, one rising when the other falls. In the second the parts either rise or fall together, though not necessarily at equal distances. The third refers to one part only, which moves up or down while another stands still.
Further explanations and examples will be found under the respective headings.
[ C. H. H. P. ]
MOUNSEY. The name of two English lady organists and musicians. The elder of the two, Ann Sheppard, was born in London April 17, 1811, and studied under Logier. She is alluded to by Spohr in his account of his visit to Logier's academy in 1820. In 1828 she was elected organist to a church at Clapton; in 1829 to St. Michael's, Wood Street, E.C., and in 1837 to St. Vedast's, Foster Lane, where she still plays. In 1834 Miss Mounsey became a member of the Philharmonic Society. In 1843 she gave the first of six series of Classical Concerts, at Crosby Hall, London, for one of which (that of 1844) Mendelssohn composed 'Hear my Prayer,' for voices and organ. In 1853 she married Mr. W. Bartholomew, and in 1855 composed the oratorio of 'The Nativity,' which was performed in the same year under the direction of Mr. Hullah at St. Martin's Hall. Mrs. Bartholomew is well known in London as a teacher; she has published upwards of 100 songs, 40 part-songs, and a large number of works for piano and for organ.
The second sister, Elizabeth, was born in London Oct. 1819, and developed considerable musical ability at a very early age. She was appointed organist of St. Peter's, Cornhill, in 1834, when only 14 years old, a post she still holds. The organ of St. Peter's, a fine instrument by Hill, was one of those on which Mendelssohn frequently played during his visits to London. (See pp. 277b, 279b.) In 1842 Miss Elizabeth Mounsey was elected member of the Philharmonic Society. Besides the organ and piano, she at one time devoted much study to the guitar, and in 1833 and 34 appeared in public as a performer thereon. She has published many works for all three instruments.
[ G. ]
MOUNTAIN SYLPH, THE. A romantic ballet opera in 2 acts; words by J. T. Thackeray, music by John Barnett. Produced at the English Opera House (Lyceum) Aug. 25, 1834.
[ G. ]
MOUNT-EDGCUMBE, Richard Edgcumbe, second Earl of, born Sept. 13, 1764, an amateur musician and composer, whose Italian opera 'Zenobia' was performed at the King's Theatre in 1800 for the benefit of Banti. He is best known as author of 'Musical Reminiscences, containing an Account of the Italian Opera in England from 1773,' London, 1825; an amusing, gossiping book, containing much useful information. Two other editions, with a continuation, appeared, and in 1834 a fourth, including the Musical Festival in Westminster Abbey in that year. He died Sept. 26, 1839.
[ W. H. H. ]
MOUNTIER, who is called by Burney 'the Chichester boy,' was probably of French origin, and educated musically in the choir of Chichester Cathedral. He made his first appearance 'in Character on any stage' as Acis, to the Galatea of Miss Arne (afterwards Mrs. Gibber), May 17, 1732, at the Haymarket Theatre,—the performance got up by the elder Arne. Mountier sang, in the same year, the part of Neptune (though advertised for that of Phœbus, which was given afterwards to Barret) in Lediard's 'Britannia, an English Opera,' with music by Lampe, 'after the Italian manner,' a work not mentioned by the biographers of that composer. It may be, therefore, interesting to record that the caste included Cecilia Young (Britannia), afterwards Mrs. Arne, Susanna Mason (Publick Virtue), Comano, or Commano (Discord), a basso who had sung the year before on the Italian stage, Waltz (Honour), the well-known singer who, from being 'Handel's cook,' became afterwards the performer of many of that master's principal bass parts in opera and oratorio, and other performers. In the following year we find Mountier promoted to the Italian stage, and singing the part of Adelberto in Handel's 'Ottone' (revived), after which his name does not appear again in the bills.
[ J. M. ]
- Autobiography, ii. 99, 100.
- See his letter, in Polko's Reminiscences, p. 220. The autograph is now in the South Kensington Museum.