tomime into their choruses, some of the performers gesticulating, accompanied by music, whilst others sang. The Romans had entire dramatic representations consisting of dancing and gesticulation only, and some of their performers attained high excellence in the art. A mixture of pantomime and dancing constituted the modern ballet d'action, so long an appendage to the Italian opera. The entertainment commonly known in this country as a Pantomime was introduced about I715 at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre by John Rich, who himself, under the name of Lun, performed the character of Harlequin in a style which extorted the admiration of those who most disapproved of the class of piece. His pantomimes were originally musical masques, usually upon some classical mythological subject, between the scenes of which harlequinade scenes were introduced, the two parts having no connection. The music for the majority of them was composed by J. E. Galliard. Their popularity compelled the managers of Drury Lane to adopt pantomimes in order to successfully compete with their rival, and they were then soon produced at other theatres also. After a time the original form was changed, and in lieu of the mythological masque, a short drama, of three or four scenes, was constructed, the invariable characters in which, under different shapes, were an old man, his pretty daughter, or ward whom he was desirous of uniting to a wealthy but foolish suitor, but who had a poorer and favoured lover and the old man's knavish serving-man. The girl and her lover were protected by a benevolent fairy, whilst the old man and his favourite had the assistance of a malevolent spirit. To counteract the machinations of the evil being, the fairy determined that her protegés should undergo a term of probation under different shapes, and accordingly transformed them into Harlequin and Columbine, giving to the former a magic bat to assist him in his progress. The evil spirit then transformed the old man and his servant into Pantaloon and Clown, and the wealthy suitor into the Dandy Lover, and the harlequinade commenced, the two lovers being pursued by the others through a variety of scenes, but always foiling them by the aid of the bat. At length the fairy reappeared and declared the success of the lovers, and the piece terminated. This form continued in use for many years; and indeed, although much altered in detail, it still constitutes the basis of modern pantomime. Vocal music was largely introduced, not only in the opening, but also in the harlequinade, and the best English composers did not disdain to employ their talents in producing it. The two Arnes, Dibdin, Battishill, Linley, Shield, Attwood, and others, all composed music for this class of entertainment. About 1830 the length of the opening was greatly extended and more spectacular effects introduced, and the 'transformation scene' became by degrees the climax of the whole. Original music was still composed for the pantomime, but the task of producing it was entrusted to inferior composers. Gradually the harlequinade scenes were reduced in number, the opening assumed the character of an extravaganza upon the subject of some nursery tale, and the music became a selection of the popular tunes of the day. In the early pantomimes Harlequin was the principal character, and continued so until the genius of Grimaldi placed the Clown in the most prominent position. While modern Clowns are content to display their skill as acrobats, Grimaldi aimed at higher objets; he was a singing Clown, witness, amongst many others, his famous songs, 'Tipitywichet,' and 'Hot Codlins,' and his duet with the oyster he was about to open:—
|Oyster.||O gentle swain, thy knife resign,
Nor wound a heart so soft as mine.
|Clown.||Who is 't that would my pity move?|
|Oyster.||An oyster that is cross'd in love, etc.|
In pantomimes of the middle period the pantomimists who sustained the principal parts in the harlequinade invariably performed in the opening the characters who were transformed. A consideration of the difference between the Italian Arlecchino and the English Harlequin is beyond the scope of our present purpose.
[ W. H. H. ]
PAPE, Jean-Henry, pianoforte maker, born July 1, 1789, at Sarsted near Hanover. He went to Paris in 1811, and after visiting England his services were secured by Ignace Pleyel to organise the works of the piano factory which he had just founded. About 1815 he appears to have set up on his own account; and thenceforward, fornearly half a century, there was perhaps no year in which he did not produce something new. His active mind never rested from attempts to alter the shape, diminish the size, radically change the framing, bellying, and action of the pianoforte; yet, in the result, with small influence, so far, upon the progress of its manufacture. In shape he produced table pianos, rounded and hexagonal: he made an oval piano, a piano console (very like a chiffonier), and novel oblique, vertical, and horizontal forms. Like Wornum in London and Streicher in Vienna, to do away with the break of continuity between wrestplank and soundboard in the grand piano, he repeated the old idea that had suggested itself to Marius and Schroeter, of an overstriking action—that is, the hammers descending upon the strings. This is said to have been in 1826. In this action he worked the hammers from the front ends of the keys, and thus saved a foot in the length of the case, which he strengthened up to due resistance of the tension without iron barring. He lowered the soundboard, glueing the belly-bars to the upper instead of the under surface, and attached the belly-bridge by a series of soundposts. His constant endeavour was to keep down the tension or drawing power of the strings, and to reduce the length and weight of the instrument; for, as he says ('Notice de M. H. Pape,' Benard, Paris, 1862), 'it is not progress in art to make
- The names Harlequin, Columbine, and Pantaloon are derived from the Italian—Arlecchino, Colombina, and Pantalone. Clown is known in Italy as Pagliaccio; in France as Paillasse, or Pitre; in German as Bajaz, or Hanswurst (Jack-pudding).