��the first works he published were classical. He soon perceived that there was an opening in Paris for editions of the best works of German musicians, and the early efforts of French com- posers of promise. His calculation proved cor- rect, and his judgment was so sound that his business increased rapidly, and he was soon obliged to move into larger premises in the Boule- vard Poissonniere, first at No. 16, and then at No. 26. Here he published Mozart's Concertos in 8vo score, and other works of the classical composers of Germany, and acquired the bulk of the stock of the firms of Frey, Naderman, Sieber, Pleyel, Petit, Erard, and Delahante. He moved in 1862 to No. 4 in the Boulevard des Italiens, at the precise spot where the Boulevard Hauss- mann would have come in if it had been finished. In this house he died, Feb. 20, 1866, well-known as a publisher of judgment and ability, a man of keen intellect, and a pleasant social companion. His son,
GUILLAUME SIMON, born in Paris Nov. 2, 1806, had long been his father's partner, and continued in the old line of serious music. At the same time he realised that in so important a business it was well that the Italian school should be represented, and accordingly bought the stock of the publisher Pacini. On the death of this good man, Feb. 7, 1877, his son,
LEON, born in Paris Aug. 6, 1839, resolved to give a fresh impetus to the firm, which already possessed 18,000 publications. Bearing in mind that his grandfather had been the first to publish Beethoven's Symphonies and Mozart's Concertos in score ; to make known in France the oratorios of Bach and Handel, and the works of Schubert, Mendelssohn, and Schumann ; to bring out the first operas of Ambroise Thomas and Victor Masse" ; to encourage Berlioz when his ' Dam- nation de Faust' was received with contempt, and to welcome the orchestral compositions of Keber and Gouvy ; M. Le"on Kichault above all determined to maintain the editions of the Ger- man classical masters which had made the for- tune of the firm. Retaining all the works didactic, dramatic, sacred, vocal, and instru- mental which still do honour to his establish- ment, he has carefully eliminated all obsolete and forgotten music. He has moreover already begun to issue new editions of all compositions of value of which the plates are worn out. His intelligent administration of his old and honour- able business procured him a silver medal at the International Exhibition of 1878, the highest recompense open to music-publishers, the jury having refused them the gold medal.
A new catalogue of Richault's publications is in preparation, the old ones having long become obsolete. It will form a large volume, and will not in all probability be ready till 1882. [G. C.]
RICHTER, ERNST FRIEDRICH EDUARD, son of a schoolmaster, born Oct. 24, 1808, at Grosschonau in Lusatia ; from his eleventh year attended the Gymnasium at Zittau, managed the choir, and arranged independent performances. In 1831 he went to Leipzig to study with Weinlig, the then
Cantor, and made such progress that soon after the foundation of the Conservatorium, in 1843, he became one of the professors of harmony and counterpoint. Up to 1847 he conducted the Sing- akademie ; he was afterwards organist of the Nicolai and Peters Neukirchen. After Haupt- mann's death, Jan. 3, 1868, he succeeded him as Cantor of the St. Thomas school. Of his books, the ' Lehrbuch der Harmonielehre ' (i 2th ed. 1876) has been translated into Dutch, Swedish, Italian, Russian, Polish, and English. The ' Lehre von der Fuge ' has passed through three editions, and ' Vom Contrapunct ' through two. The Eng- lish translations of all these are by Franklin Taylor, and were published by Cramer & Co. in 1864, 1878, and 1874 respectively. Richter also published a ' Catechism of Organ-building.' Of his many compositions de circonstance the best known is the Cantata for the Schiller Festival in 1859. Other works are an oratorio, 'Christus der Erloser ' (March 8, 1849), masses, psalms, motets, organ-pieces, string-quartets, and sonatas for PF. He became one of the King's Professors in 1868, died at Leipzig, April 9, 1879, and was succeeded as Cantor by W. RUST. [F.G.]
RICHTER, HANS, celebrated conductor, born April 4, 1843, at Raab in Hungary, where his father was Capellmeister of the cathedral. His mother was also musical, and is still a teacher of singing at Pesth. The father died in 1853, and Hans was then placed at the Lowenburg Convict- School in Vienna. Thence he went into the choir of the Court chapel, and remained there for four years. In 1859 he entered the Conservatorium, and studied the horn under Kleinecke, and theory under Sechter. After a lengthened engagement as horn- player in the orchestra of the Karnthnerthor opera he was recommended by Esser to Wagner, went to him at Lucerne, remained there from Oct. 1866 to Dec. 1867, and made the first fair copy of the score of the ' Meistersinger.' In 1868 he accepted the post of conductor at the Hof- und National Theatre, Munich, and remained there for some length of time. He next visited Paris, and after a short residence there, proceeded to Brussels for the production of 'Lohengrin' (March 22,18 70). He then returned to Wagner at Lucerne, assisted at the first performance of the 'Siegfried Idyll' (Dec. 1870), and made the fair copy of the score of the 'Niebelun- gen Ring' for the engraver. Early in 1871 he went to Pesth as chief conductor of the National Theatre, a post to which he owes much of his great practical knowledge of the stage and stage business. In Jan. 1875 he conducted a grand orchestral concert in Vienna, which had the effect of attracting much public attention to him, and accordingly, after the retirement of Herbeck (April 1875) from the direction of the Court Opera Theatre where he was succeeded by Jauner and of Dessoff from the same theatre, Richter was invited to take the post vacated by the latter, which he entered upon in the autumn of 1875, concurrently with the conductorship of the Philharmonic Concerts. He had already been conducting the rehearsals of the 'Niebelungen