Ring' at Bayreuth, and in 1876 he directed the whole of the rehearsals and performances of the Festival there, and, at the close of the third set of performances, received the order of Maximilian from the King of Bavaria, and that of the Falcon from the Grand Duke of Weimar. In 1877 ^ e produced the Walkyrie in Vienna, and followed it in 1878 by the other portions of the tetralogie. In 1878 he was made capellmeister, and received the order of Franz Josef. In 1879 (May 5-12), 80 (May lO-June 14), and 81 (May 9 -June 23) he conducted important orchestral concerts in London, which excited much attention, chiefly for his knowledge of the scores of Beethoven's sym-
Shonies and other large works, which he con- ucted without book.
Herr Richter is certainly one of the very first of living conductors. He owes this position in great measure to the fact of his intimate practical acquaintance with the technik of the instruments in the orchestra, especially the wind, to a degree in which he stands alone. As a musician he is a self-made man, and enjoys the peculiar advan- tages which spring from that fact. His devotion to his orchestra is great, and the present high standard and position of the band of the Vienna opera house is due to him. He is a great master of crescendo and decrescendo. Perhaps he leans too much to the encouragement of ' virtuosity ' in his orchestra. But as a whole, what he directs will always be finely played.
In correction of a previous statement we may gay that his mother, Mme. Richter von Innffeld, formerly a distinguished soprano singer, now lives in Vienna as a teacher of singing. Her method of producing the voice affecting especially the soft palate and other parts of the back of the mouth has been very successful, and attracted the notice of Prof. Helmholtz, who in 1872 investigated it, and wrote her a letter of strong approval. [F. G.] RICORDI, GIOVANNI, founder of the well- known music-publishing house in Milan, where he was born in 1785, and died March 15, 1853. He made his first hit with the score of Mosca's 4 Pretendenti delusi.' Since that time Ricordi has published for all the great Italian maestri, down to Verdi and Boito, and has far out- stripped all rivals. His ' Gazetta musicale,' edited with great success by Mazzucati, has had much influence on his prosperity. The firm possesses the whole of the original scores of the operas they have published a most inter- esting collection. Giovanni's son and successor TITO further enlarged the business, and at this moment the stock consists of over 40,000,000 pages, or nearly 50,000 items, of music. The catalogue issued in 1875 contains 738 pages large 8vo. For some years past Tito has been disabled by illness, and the present head of the firm is his son GIDLIO Di TITO, born in 1835, who is a practised writer, a skilled draughtsman, a com- poser of drawing-room music, and in all respects a thoroughly cultivated man.
This notice must not end without a mention of Paloschi's ' Annuario musicale,' a useful and ac- curate calendar of musical dates, published by
VOL. III. PT. 2.
��this excellent firm, the second edition of which was issued in 1878. [F-G-]
RIDOTTO, an Italian term for an assembly with music, and usually with masks.
They went to the Ridotto 'tis a hall Where people dance and sup and dance again ; The proper name, perhaps, were a raask'd ball, But that 's of no importance to ray strain,
says Byron in ' Beppo,' writing from Venice in 1817. They were known in Italy much earlier than that, and had spread to both Germany and England. They are frequently mentioned by Horace Walpole under the name ' Ridotto,' and were one of the attractions at Vauxhall and Ranelagh in the middle of the last century. In Germany and France a French version of the name was adopted REDOUTE. [Seep. 89]. [G.] RIEDEL, CARL, born Oct. 6, 1827, at Kronen- berg in the Rhine provinces. Though always musically inclined he was educated for trade, and up to 1848 pursued the business of a silk dyer. Being in Lyons during the Revolution of that year the disturbance to his business and the excitement of the moment drove him to the resolution of forsaking trade and devoting him- self to music as a profession. He returned home and at once began serious study under the direction of CARL WILHELM, then an obscure musician at Crefeld, but destined to be widely known as the author of the ' Wacht am Rhein.' Late in 1849 Riedel entered the Leipzig Con- servatorium, where he made great progress under Moscheles, Hauptmann, Becker, and Plaidy. After leaving the Conservatorium the direction of his talent was for some time uncertain. He had however for long had a strong predilection for the vocal works of the older masters of Germany and Italy. Early in 1854 ^ e practised and performed in a private society at Leipzig Astorga's 'Stabat,' Palestrina's ' Improperia,' and Leo's ' Miserere,' and this led him to found a singing society of his own, which began on May 17, 1854, with a simple quartet of male voices, and was the foundation of the famous Association which, under the name of the ' Riedelsche Verein,' was so celebrated in Leip- zig. Their first public concert was held in Novem- ber, 1855. The reality of the attempt was soon recognised ; members flocked to the society ; and its first great achievement was a performance of Bach's B minor Mass, April 10, 1859. At that time Riedel appears to have practised only ancient music, but this rule was by no means maintained; and in the list of the works per- formed by the Verein we find Beethoven's Mass in D, Kiel's ' Christus,' Berlioz's Requiem, and Liszt's Graner Mass' and ' St. Elizabeth.' Rie- del's devotion to his choir was extraordinary : he was not only its Conductor, but Librarian, Secretary, Treasurer, all in one. His interest in societies outside his own, and in the welfare of music, was always ready and always effective, and many of the best Vocal Associations of North Germany owe their success to his advice and help. The programmes of the public per- formances of his society show the names of many