was ordered to try the effects of his native air at Bologna. When bidding goodbye to his colleague, Anselm Weber, he said, ' It is my belief that I shall never return ; if it should be so, sing a Requiem and a Miserere for me ' touching words too soon fulfilled by his death at Bologna, Aug. 19, 1813. His own Requiem (score in the Berlin Library), was performed by the Singakademie in his honour.
Besides 20 operas, of which a list is given by Frtis. Riyhini composed church music a Te Deum and a Missa Solennis are published and still known in Germany several cantatas, and innu- merable Scenas, Lieder, and songs; also a short ballet, ' Minerva belebt die Statuen des Dadalus,' and some instrumental pieces, including a sere- nade for 2 clarinets, 2 horns, and 2 bassoons (1799, Breitkopf & Hartel). One of his operas, ]1 Convitato di pietra, osia il dissoluto,' will always be interesting as a forerunner of Mozart's 'Don Giovanni.' It was produced at Vienna, Aug. 21, 1777 (ten years before Mozart's), and is described by Jahn (Mozart, ii. 333). His best orchestral work is his overture to 'Tigranes,' which is still occasionally played in Germany and England. Breitkopf & Hartel's Catalogue shows a tolerably long list of his songs, and his exercises for the voice (1804) are amongst the best that exist. English amateurs will find a duet of his, ' Come opprima,' from ' Enea nel Lazio,' in the 'Musical Library,' vol. i. p. 8, and two airs in Lonsdale's ' Gemme d'Anti- chita.' He was one of the 63 composers who set the words 'In questa tomba oscura,' and his setting was published in 1878 by Ritter of Magdeburg. |F.Gr.]
RIGOLETTO. An opera in 3 acts ; libretto by Piave (founded on V. Hugo's Le Roi s'amuse'), music by Verdi. Produced at the Teatro Fenice, Venice, March n, 1851, and given in Italian at Covent Garden, May 14, 1853, and at the Italiens, Paris, Jan. 19, 1857. [G.]
RIMBAULT, EDWARD FRANCIS, LL.D, son of Stephen Francis Rimbault, organist of St. Giles in the Fields, was born in Soho, June 13, 1816 He received his first instruction in music from his father, but afterwards became a pupil of Samuel Wesley. At 16 years old he was appointed organist of the Swiss Church, Soho. He early directed his attention to the study of musical history and literature, and in 1838 delivered a series of lectures on the history of music in England. In 1840 he took an active part in the formation of the Musical Antiquarian and Percy Societies, of both which he became secretary, and for both which he edited several works. In 1841 he was editor of the musical pub- lications of the Motett Society. In the course of the next few years he edited a collection of Cathedral Chants ; The Order of Daily Service according to the use of Westminster Abbey ; a reprint of Low's Brief Direction for the per- formance of Cathedral Service; Tallis's Re- sponses; Merbeck's Book of Common Prayer, noted ; a volume of unpublished Cathedral Services ; Arnold's Cathedral Music ; and the ora-
��torios of ' Messiah,' ' Samson,' and ' Saul,' for the Handel Society. In 1842 he was elected nn F.S.A. and member of the Academy of Music in Stockholm, and obtained the degree of Doctor in Philosophy. He was offered, but declined, the appointment of Professor of Music in Har- vard University, U. S. A. In 1848 he received the honorary degree of LL. D. He lectured on music at the Collegiate Institution, Liverpool ; the Philosophic Institute, Edinburgh ; the Royal Institution of Great Britain, and elsewhere. He published ' The History and Construction of the Organ ' (in collaboration with Mr. E. J. Hopkins), ' Notices of the Early English Organ Builders ' ; ' History of the Pianoforte,' ' Bibliotheca Mad- rigaliana,' ' Musical Illustrations of Percy's Reliques,"The Ancient Vocal Music of England," ' The Rounds, Catches and Canons of England ' (in conjunction with Rev. J. P. Metcalfe), two collections of Christmas Carols, 'A Little Book of Songs and Ballads,' etc., etc. He edited North's 'Memoirs of Musick,' Sir Thomas Overbury's Works, the Old Cheque Book of the Chapel Royal, and two Sermons by Boy Bishops. He ar- ranged many operas and other works, was author of many elementary books, and an extensive contributor to periodical literature. His com- positions were but few, the principal being an operetta, 'The Fair Maid of Islington.' 1838, and a posthumous cantata, 'Country Life.' His pretty little song, 'Happy land,' had an extensive popularity. After his resignation of the organist- ship of the Swiss Church, he was successively organist of several churches and chapels. He died, after a lingering illness, Sept. 26, 1876, leaving a fine musical library, which was sold by auction. [W.H.H.]
RINALDO. Handel's first opera in England; composed in a fortnight, and produced at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket Feb. 24, 1711. The libretto was founded on the episode of Rinaldo and Armida in Tasso's 'Jerusalem De- livered' (the same on which Gluck based his ' Armida'). Rossi wrote it in Italian, and it was translated into English by Aaron Hill. The opera was mounted with extraordinary magnifi- cence, and had an uninterrupted run of 15 nights at that time unusually long. The march, and the air ' II tricerbero,' were long popular as ' Let us take the road' (Beggar's Opera), and ' Let the waiter bring clean glasses.' ' Lascia ch'io pianga ' made out of a saraband in Handel's earlier opera ' Almira' (1704) is still a favourite with singers and hearers. [G.]
RINFORZANDO, reinforcing ' or increasing in power. This word, or its abbreviations, rinf. or rfz. is used to denote a sudden and short- lasting crescendo. It is applied generally to a whole phrase however short, and has the same meaning as sforzando, which is only applied to single notes. It is sometimes used in concerted music to give a momentary prominence to a subordinate part, as for instance in the Beethoven Quartet, op. 95, in the Allegretto, where the violoncello part is marked rinforzando, when it has the second