��playing cornet, timpani, and viola, all which, as well as the pianoforte and organ, he had added to the repertoire of his instruments. At this time, with characteristic energy, he learned scoring for a military band from Waetzig of the Life Guards, and also mastered the trombone, and one or two other instruments. In 1846 he began the double bass, under Casolani, and by that instrument he is most generally known. In 1847 he became a member of the orchestras of the Royal Italian Opera, Philharmonic, Sacred Harmonic Society, etc.; in 1850 was PF. accompanyist, and solo double-bass player at the National Concerts, and became double-bass at H.M. Theatre in March 1851. In 1852 he performed a solo before the Queen and Prince Albert at Windsor. In 1854, finding the strain of the constant practice on the thick threestringed English bass too severe, Mr. Rowland retired to Southampton, and devoted himself to teaching the piano, violin, harmony, and singing, in which he has been very successful up to the present time. But he did not at once give up his connexion with London. On April 29, 1861, he appeared at the Philharmonic Concert, and performed Mayseder's Violin Concerto (op. 40) on the double-bass. His position as principal double-bass to the Society he retained till the resignation of Sir W. S. Bennett, in 1866, when he also resigned, and has since confined himself to his country practice at Southampton.
Mr. Rowland has published the 7oth Psalm for voices and orchestra (Ashdown & Parry); the first part of a Double-bass Tutor (L. Cock & Co.), the second part of which is now in the press; also a set of waltzes composed for and played by Jullien's band in 1 841 . He has also composed an overture, and various vocal pieces which have been performed at Southampton, but are not published. He is the leading professor there, and much esteemed by the musicians and amateurs of the place. [G.]
ROW OF KEYS. A single clavier or manual. An instrument having two or more rows of keys is one having two or more manuals. The term
- row of keys ' is, when speaking of an organ, not applied to a pedal-clavier from the simple fact that one 'row of keys' is all that is required by the feet; two rows of pedal-keys have, it is true, been sometimes constructed, but they have always been found unnecessary, and generally unmanageable. Harpsichords had often two TOWS of keys, one sounding less noisy wires than the other; some mechanical change of that sort being the only means of obtaining a softer or louder tone in that instrument. [J.S.]
ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC, 1720–1728. From 1717 to 1720 there was no Italian Opera in London, but in the latter year a sum of £50,000 was raised by subscription, and an establishment was founded for the performance of Italian operas. This was the first Royal Academy of Music. It consisted of a Governor, a Deputy-Governor, and 20 Directors. The first governor was the Duke of Newcastle, the deputy -governor was Lord Bingley, and the directors included the leaders of society at the Court of George I. Buononcini was invited to England from Rome, Ariosti from Berlin, and Handel left Cannons and went to Dresden to engage singers. Under these brilliant auspices the Academy opened at the King's Theatre in the Haymarket, on April 1, 1720, with Giovanni Porta's 'Numitor,' and the following strong cast:—Senesino, Durastanti, Boschi, and Berenstadt. The season ended on June 25. It was remarkable for the production of Handel's 'Radamisto' and D. Scarlatti's 'Narcisso,' the latter conducted by Roseingrave, and including Mrs. Anastasia Robinson in the cast. The second season lasted from Nov. 19, 1720, to July 5, 1721. The new works performed were 'Astarto' (Buononcini), 'Arsace' (a pasticcio), 'Muzio Scævola' (Ariosti, Buononcini, and Handel), and 'Giro' (Ariosti). During the first year of the undertaking £15,000 of the subscription had been spent. The third season began Nov. 1, 1721, and ended June 16, 1722. The new operas were Handel's 'Floridante,' Buononcini's 'Crispo' and 'Griselda.' The fourth season lasted from Nov. 7, 1722, to June 15, 1723, and was remarkable for the first appearance in England of Cuzzoni, who sang in Handel's 'Ottone' on Jan. 12. The other new works (besides 'Ottone') were Ariosti's 'Coriolano,' Buononcini's 'Erminia,' and Handel's 'Flavio.' In the fifth season (Nov. 27, 1723, to June 13, 1724) Buononcini's 'Farnace,' Ariosti's 'Vespasiano,' and a pasticcio called 'Aquilio,' were produced. At the end of the season Mrs. Robinson retired from the stage. The sixth season (Oct. 31, 1724, to May 19, 1725) opened with Handel's 'Tamerlano.' Ariosti's 'Artaserse' and 'Dario' (partly by Vivaldi), Handel's 'Rodelinda,' Buononcini's 'Calfurnia,' and Vinci's 'Elpidia' were the other new works produced. The seventh season (November 1725 to June 1726) ended abruptly, owing to the illness of Senesino, but it was remarkable for the first appearance of the celebrated Faustina Hasse, who sang in Handel's 'Alessandro' on May 5. Handel's 'Scipione' was also produced in March. Owing to Senesino's absence, the operas were suspended till Christmas, and the next season ended on June 6, 1727. Ariosti's 'Lucio Vero,' Handel's 'Admeto,' and Buononcini's 'Astyanax' (the last of his operas performed at the Academy) were the chief works; but the season, although short, was enlivened by the continual disturbances caused by the rivalry between Cuzzoni and Faustina. The ninth season lasted from Oct. 3, 1727, to June 1, 1728. The operas were entirely under Handel's direction: his 'Siroe,' 'Tolomeo,' and 'Ricardo I' were produced, but the success of the 'Beggar's Opera' at Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre, as well as the continual disputes and dissensions amongst the singers, caused the season to be more than usually disastrous. At the end of it, the whole sum subscribed, as well as the receipts, was found to have been entirely spent. The company was dispersed, and although a few meetings of the court were held during the year, the establishment was