STRAUS, LUDWIG, an excellent violin-player, was born at Pressburg, March 28, 1835 5 entered the Vienna Conservatoire in 1843, and remained there till the revolution in 1848; was pupil of Bohm for the violin, and Preyer and Nottebohm for counterpoint ; made his first appearance (at the same time with Fraulein Csillag) in a con- cert at the hall of the Musikverein, Vienna, in June 1850. During the next few years he made various public appearances, besides playing in the private concerts of several patrons of music, especially Prince Czartoryski, at whose reunions he played second fiddle to Mayseder for three years. At the Mozart Centenary Festival in 1856 he met Liszt, and like many other young artists benefitted by his kindness. Straus's first concert tour-ne'e was made in 1855, and extended as far as Venice and Florence. In 1857 he made the acquaintance of Piatti, with whom he took a second tour through Germany and Sweden. In 1860 he was appointed concertuieister of the theatre and of the Museum-concerts in Frankfort, a post which he held for five years, giving also quartet concerts, and leading the subscription concerts in the neighbouring towns. In 1860 he first visited England, played at the Musical Union June 5, etc., and at the Monday Popular Concert of June 1 8. In 1861 he returned, and appeared twice at the Philharmonic, April 29 and June 24.
In 1 864 he took up his residence in this country, settling after a time in Manchester, where he is leader of Mr. Charles Halle's orchestra. But he often visits London, to take either first fiddle or viola in the Monday Popular Concerts, or to play solo at the Crystal Palace or the Philharmonic, and during his residence in England he has also played at Dresden, Vienna, etc. Straus is a member of the Queen's private band, and ' Solo Violinist' to Her Majesty. [G.]
STRAUSS, JOHANN, composer of dance-music of world- wide celebrity, born in Vienna, March 14, 1804. As a child he showed talent for music, and a love for the violin, but his parents, small innkeepers, apprenticed him to a book- binder, from whom he ran away. A friend met him, took him back, and persuaded the parents to entrust him with the boy's education as a musician. With the son of this benefactor the little Strauss learnt the violin from Polyschansky, afterwards studying harmony and instrumenta- tion with Seyfried. He soon played the viola in string-quartets at private houses, and at
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��fifteen entered Pamer's orchestra at the ' Sperl,' a favourite place of amusement in the Leopold- stadt. At that time the excellent playing of Lanner and the brothers Drahanek was exciting attention; Strauss offered himself, and was accepted ,as fourth in the little band. Soon, however, their numbers had to be increased to meet their numerous engagements, and Strauss acted as deputy-conductor till 1825, when he and Lanner parted. In the Carnival of 1826 Strauss and his little orchestra of fourteen per- formers appeared in the hall of the ' Swan ' in the Rossau suburb, and took the hearts of the people by storm. His op. I, the ' Tauberl- Walzer' (Haslinger), was speedily followed by others, the most successful being the ' Ketten- briicken-Walzer,' called after the Hall of that name. Strauss was next invited to return with his now enlarged orchestra to the Sperl, and with such success as to induce the proprietor, Scherzer, to engage him for six years, which virtually founded the reputation of the ' Sperl,' and its orchestral conductor. Meantime Strauss was appointed Capellmeister of the ist Burger- regiment, and entrusted with the music at the court fetes and balls. As his band was daily in request at several places at once, he increased the number to oyer 200, from which he formed a select body for playing at concerts, in music of the highest class. He now began to make tours in the provinces and abroad, visiting Pesth in 1833 ; Berlin, Leipzig, and Dresden in 1834; West Germany in 1835; and North Germany, Holland, Belgium, and the Rhine, in 1836. His next tour began in October 1837, and embraced Strassburg, Paris, Rouen, Havre, Belgium, London, and the larger towns of Great Britain; he then returned to Belgium, and back to England and Scotland, and finally returned over the Continent by Strassburg, reaching Vienna in December 1838 in very bad health. His success in Paris was unprecedented, notwithstanding the formidable rivalry of Musard and Dufresne, with the former of whom he wisely joined for a series of thirty concerts. A disagreeable intrigue nearly made him throw up the journey to England, but it was only there that his profits at all remunerated him for his enormous expenses. In London he played at seventy-two concerts, and at innumerable balls and fetes given in honour of the Queen's coronation (June 28, 1838). On his second visit he had great difficulty in keeping his band from dispersing, so weary were they of con- tinual travelling. He managed, however, to go again to Birmingham, Liverpool, and Dublin, besides visiting Reading, Cheltenham, Worcester, Leicester, Derby, Nottingham, and Sheffield. At Sheffield his receipts were small, and at Halifax still less, but when the amateurs of both places discovered the kind of musician they had been neglecting, a deputation was sent with post-horses to Leeds to bring him back again. He was taken ill at Derby, and only reached Vienna with great difficulty. His first re- appearance at the Sperl was quite a popular