This post he resigned after his brilliant success on the stage, but he had in the meantime com- posed nearly 400 waltzes, of as high a type as those of his father. His music is penetrated with Viennese gaiety and spirit, and has made its way into all countries. The waltz, ' An der schonen blauen Donau' (op. 314), became a kind of musical watchword in Vienna, and was played on all festive occasions. Besides Russia, Strauss visited Paris (during the Exhibition of 1867), London, New York, Boston, and the larger towns of Italy. The theatre An der Wien was the scene of his triumphs as a com- poser of operettas, which rapidly spread to all the theatres, large and small. ' Indigo und die vierzig Rauber' (his first, 1871), 'Der Karneval in Rom,' ' Die Fledermaus,' ' Prinz Methusalem,' ' Cagliostro,' ' Das Spitzentuch der Konigin,' and 'Die lustige Krieg,' all published by Spina, were soon known all over the world, and were sung everywhere. After the death of his wife on April 8, 1878, he married another dramatic singer, Angelica Dittrich. His pen is still busy (1883), and we may hope for more of its lively productions.
His next brother, JOSEPH, born August 22, 1827, in Vienna, was also obliged to accom- modate himself to his father's wishes, and be- came an architect. He had. however, studied music in secret, and during an illness of his brother's in 1853 he conducted for him with a baton, as he did not learn the violin till later. He next collected a band, began to compose, and published in rapid succession 283 \vorks (Haslinger and Spina) not less popular than those of his brother indeed ranked by some even higher. He had always been delicate, and the excitement incidental to his calling increased the mischief year by year. A visit to Warsaw in 1870, against the wish of his friends, was very disastrous. Some Russian officers, having sent for him in the middle of the night to play for them, so shamefully ill-treated him for his refusal that he had to take to his bed. Under the devoted nursing of his wife (married in 1857) he rallied sufficiently to return to Vienna, but sank a few days afterwards, July 22, 1870.
The youngest of his brothers, EDUARD, was born at Vienna, Feb. 14, 1835, and edu- cated at the Schotten and Akademien Gym- nasiums. His father having died before he grew up he devoted himself entirely to music, learnt the harp, and studied composition with Preyer. In 1862 he made his first appearance as a conductor in the Dianasaal, and was well received for his father's sake. In 1865 he took his brother Johann's place at the concerts in St. Petersburg, and in 1870 became conductor of the court balls. He and his band have made repeated tours to Dresden, Leipzig, Breslau, Berlin, Hamburg, Frankfort, etc. He still ap- pears regularly in Vienna on fixed days at the Volksgarten, and in the winter in the large hall of the Musikverein, when his programmes are always attractive. Up to this time he has com-
��posed over 200 pieces of dance-music, published by Haslinger, and latterly, with few exceptions, by Spina (Schreiber). Eduard Strauss married in 1863. [C.F.P.]
STREICHER, JOHANN ANDREAS, a professor of music in Vienna, and by marriage with Nanette Stein, the founder of the pianoforte-making firm in that, city, derived from Stein of Augsburg, that was to become in course of time the famous house of Streicher und Sohn. J. A. Streicher was born at Stuttgart in 1761 : he was a man of education and great intelligence, and was more- over distinguished by his friendship with Schiller. He brought up his son, JOHANN BAPTIST, who was born in 1 794, to the business, and long before his death, which took place in 1832, resigned it to the son's complete control. Johann Baptist maintained the excellent traditions of his worthy predecessors; and when he died in 1871, left his son, Herr Emil Streicher, the proprietor of this historical business, the services of which in the improvement of pianoforte construction are duly recognised in the articles PIANOFORTE and STEIN. The distinguished pianist, Mr. Ernst Pauer, is a grandson of J. A. Streicher and Nanette Stein, and a great-grandson of the object of Mozart's admiration, J. A. Stein of Augsburg. [See PAUER.] [A.J.H.]
STRETTO (Ital.), literally 'close' or 'narrow/ A term used in two ways. Firstly in Fugue, where it designates the following of response to subject at a closer interval of time than at first. This device is usually employed towards the end of a fugue, so as to give some impression of climax. But there are plenty of exceptions to that custom ; e. g.
��BACH 48, No. i.
��which occurs close to the beginning. Some sub- jects will bear more than one stretto, in which case the closer naturally conies last ; e. g.
��from the ' Amen ' chorus of Handel's ' Messiah.' (The inner parts are omitted for the sake of clearness.) Still more remarkable instances will be found in the fugue of Bach's Toccata in D minor.
2. The second use of the word occurs more especially in Italian opera, when towards the end