��sischer Volkslieder mit Clavierbegleitung.' Leipzig, 1863-67. (A very large but untrustworthy collection.)
28. F. Silcher : ' Deutsche Volkslieder.' Tubingen 1827-40. (Many of these Silcher composed himself; but they are now considered regular Volkslieder.)
27. A. Vilmar: ' Handbuchlein fur Freunde des deutschen Volksliedes.' Marburg, 1867-68. (Useful.)
28. Philipp "Wackernagel : ' Das deutsche Kirchenlied von Luther bis auf Nic. Hermann.' Stuttgart, 1841.
29. Philipp "Wackernagel : ' Das deutsche Kirchenlied von altester Zeit bis zu Anfange des 17ten Jahrhun- dert' Leipzig, 1868-76. (An important work.)
30. 0. von Winterfeld: ' Dr. Martin Luther's deutsche geistliche Lieder, nebst den wahrend seines Lebens dazu gebrauchlichen Tonsatzen Uber dieselben von Meistern des IGten Jahrhunderf Leipzig, 1840.
31. C. von "Winterfeld: 'Der evangelische Kirchen- gesang und sein Verhaltniss zur Kunst des Tonsatzes.' Leipzig, 1842-47. (A standard work.) [A.H.W.]
VOLKSTHUMLICHES LIED. For the
explanation of this term see SONG, pp. 621-5. To the examples there cited another very good one may be added, taken from a sketch-book * of Bee- thoven's of 1815 and 1816, and remarkable for freshness, melody, and fitness to the words.
��Was frag ich ylel nach Geld und Gut, wenn
��ieh zu - Me - den bin?
��Glebt Gott mlr nur ge -
��sund -esBIut.io bab' ich fro - heo
��sing aus dankbarem Gemttth meln Uorgen und meln Abendlled.
The words of the song are by J. M. Miller. It is entitled ' Die, Zufriedenheit,' and has been Bet also by Mozart and 0. Q. Neefe.
The term Im Volkston, applied by Schumann as a title to his five pieces for Violoncello and Piano, op. 1 02, signifies that these pieces are of a popu- lar or volktiktimliches cast [A.H.W.]
VOLLWEILER, G. J., born 1770, an es- teemed professor of music in Frankfort, where he died Nov. 17, 1847. He was the author of two instruction-books, one in PF-playing, and one in singing for schools; both published by Schotts. Vollweiler was the teacher of two re- nowned musicians, Aloys Schmitt and Ferdinand Hiller. His son CABL was born 1813, and died at Heidelberg, Jan. 27, 1848, after a long and varied musical career in Germany, Austria, and Bussia. [G.]
VOLTA, PRIMA, SECONDA First, or second time ; more commonly seen in the abbre- viated forms, ' i ma,' ' 2 da/ or with the numerals alone an indication that the portion of an in- strumental movement which is to be repeated, is to undergo certain modifications at the close of its second repetition, instead of being repeated exactly. In the earlier development of the sonata-form it was soon found that when the first part of the movement closed on the dominant,
i Nottebohm, in Mas. Wocbenbtett.' Nor. 3. 1876.
or in the case of a movement in a minor key- on the relative major, it was convenient to make the transition back to the tonic, or to the open- ing subject, by means of some short and obvious figure, which without disturbing the rhythm of the music should prepare for the return to the beginning. In cases where the second half of the movement began, like the first, in the tonic, the transitional figure could of course be retained without alteration, but where the second half began in the dominant or any other key, the transitional figure had, so to speak, to change its direction, so as to lead into such other key; or it might be omitted in cases where the close of the first half and the beginning of the second were in the same key. The transitional figure occupied generally not more than part of a bar; and where it had to be altered, both versions were written side by side, one immediately be- fore the repetition mark, and the other imme- diately after it. A line was drawn above both, and the words 'Prima volta/ or the figure i, placed over the first version, and ' Seconda volta,' or simply 2, over the second. At first the player goes straight on to the repeat, but at the second repetition he passes from the beginning of the line where 'Prima volta' stands, to the double bar, so that the portion after the double bar is played instead of that before it. Two very good instances of this simplest form of transition are the Gavotte in Bach's 3rd (G minor) Eng- lish Suite, and the first movement of his son Emanuel's beautiful Sonata in F minor. In the Scherzo of Beethoven's 7th Symphony, the only difference between the prima and seconda volta is one of force ; both consist simply of a long- held A, but the first time it is held out for- tissimo, and at the second, there is a diminuendo to the piano with which the trio begins. But as the development of the form went on, the transitional figure followed the example of all the other parts and became longer and more elaborate, often occupying so many bars that the rhythm is no longer strictly adhered to, but is held in abeyance till the transition has been made. [J.A.F.M.]
VOLTE, a kind of ancient dance, in three- time, so called from the figure containing many turns (volti). Thoinot Arbeau, in his 'Orche- sographie ' gives the following air of a Volte.
��J ' J J J ' J
c*> cs c*f -^. & ^y^
��VOLTI, VOLTI SUBITO 'Turn over,' 'Turn over quickly.' This direction, or the initials V.S. an exact musical equivalent to
- P.T.O.' is used in manuscript and old printed
music, at the bottom of a page where, without it, it might be supposed, for one cause or another, that the piece had come to an end. For in- stance, where a double bar closes the bottom line,