and the music is continued overleaf, the direc- tion serves to remind the performer that it is not the end. It was not an uncommon practice, in writing out instrumental music, if a conve- nient pause, in which the player could turn over, happened to come not far from the end of a page, to leave the rest of the page blank and put the direction or the initials after the pause. This practice is still retained in orches- tral parts, where the copyists always take ad- vantage of a few bars' rest to give the player the opportunity of turning over for himself. In more recently printed music for pianoforte the direction is hardly ever found, as it is supposed that if the player cannot manage to turn over, help will be found. In such things as string parts of chamber music, the engraver generally manages that the end of a movement, or else a few bars' rest, shall come at the end of a page. In the appendix to vol. i. of C. H. Bitter's Life of J. S. Bach, part of a song, ' Bist du bei mir,' from the music-book of Anna Magdalena, Bach's second wife, is given in facsimile of the com- poser's writing. A double bar closes the page, but evidently the song does not end there ; the composer, to prevent any mistake, has added the words ' Volti cito,' the meaning of which is precisely the same as the more usual version of the direction. [J.A.F.M.]
VOLUME, when applied to the sound of an instrument or voice, is the quantity, amount, or fullness thereof. The word has acquired this meaning since the time of Johnson. In Rous- seau's Dictionary, Volume is explained to mean Compass 'the extent or interval between the highest and lowest sounds.* [G.]
VOLUMIER, 1 JEAN BAPTISTS, a Belgian musician, chiefly remembered for his accidental connexion with John Sebastian Bach, said to have been born in 1677, in Spain, and brought up at the French Court. 2 He entered the Electoral Chapel of Prussia Nov. 22, 1692, and soon became Maitre de Concert and Direc- tor of the dance music at the Berlin Court, and was renowned for his Ballets. On June 28, 1709, he was appointed Concertmeister to the Court of Dresden. Here he kept up his former reputation for dance music and divertissements, but was also celebrated as a violin-player, es- pecially of French compositions, and a performer on an instrument of the Hackbrett kind, of his own invention. He was on friendly terms with Bach and an enthusiastic admirer of his genius, and it was during his residence at Dresden, and also at his instigation, that the famous match was arranged between Bach and Marchand the French player, which resulted in the flight of the latter. Volumier died at Dresden Oct. 7, 1728. (See Furstenau, 'Zur Geschichte Musik ... am Hofe Dresdens'; Matheson, 'Ehren- pforte' ; Forkel, J. S. Bach.') [G.]
VOLUNTARY. The name given to the pieces of organ-music played before, during, and after
��> The name is said to have ' a Mendel.
��Divine Service; and possibly derived from the fact that from their not forming a part of the regular service, it was optional with the organist to play them or not. These took the form of highly embellished versions of Hymn-tunes, Diapason piece, Trumpet voluntary, Introduc- tion^ and fugue, Cornet voluntary, with half- comic 'ecchoes' on the 'Swelling Organ.' The voluntary proper flourished chiefly between 1720 and 1830. Croft, Greene, Boyce, Keeble, Battis- hill, Kelway, Beckwith, Bennet, S. Wesley, Rus- sell, and T. Adams were all writers of voluntaries. Many of their compositions have a tranquil grace which is not unpleasing, but they are too small in plan and too artless in execution to make themselves heard against I9th century bustle. Those by Russell ought not so to die. They are almost in suite -form and generally contain a melodious fugue with clever modulation and climax. Handel's airs and choruses (not always sacred by the way ' Wretched Lovers ' being a greatfavourite), scraps of symphonies and quartets, even songs without words, gradually crowded out this gentle music, not always to the advantage of art. Now again better taste seems to have brought in real organ works. Not to mention the greatest composers, Wesley, Smart, Hopkins, Best, and a large number of good German writers, have been encouraged to write suitable music. Some day we may hope to hear the best of all John Sebastian Bach's wonderful settings of the Chorale. [W.Pa.]
VORSCHLAG (Ger.), an ornament made at the commencement of a note, and therefore the opposite of the NAOHSOHLAG, which is placed at the end. It usually consists of a note one degree above or below the principal note, as the note which it embellishes is called (Ex. i), though it may be more distant from it (Ex. 2), and it may also consist of more than one note (Ex. 3), in which case it has a special name. [SLIDE, DOUBLE APPOGGIATUBA],
���The Vorschlag is written as a small note or notes, and is not accounted for in the time of the bar. In order to make room for it, the principal note is slightly curtailed and its entrance de- layed, as is shown in the above examples. This