Zerrahn's care ever since its organisation in 1868, as have also been numerous choral and orchestral societies and male singing-clubs belonging to Boston or its neighbourhood. [F.H. J.]
ZEUGHEER, JAKOB (known also as J. Z. HERRMANN), born at Zurich in 1805, learned the violin first from Wassermann in his native town, and in 1818 was placed at Munich under Ferdinand Franzel, for the violin, and Gratz for composition and musical science. A visit to Vienna in 1823 confirmed his enthusiasm for chamber-music and Beethoven, who remained through life the object of his highest veneration. The example of Schuppanzigh, and of the four brothers Moralt, suggested to Zeugheer the idea of attempting the same with his friends in Munich, as 'das Quartett Gebruder Herr- mann.' Zeugheer was leader; Joseph Wex of Immenstadt, second violin ; Carl Baader, viola ; and Joseph Lidel (grandson of Andreas Lidl, the eminent performer on the baryton, see BARYTON), violoncello. They started Aug. 24, 1824, for the south, and gave perform- ances at the towns of south Germany and Switzerland, and along the Rhine to Holland and Belgium. In the spring of 1826 they played in Paris, before Cherubim and Baillot, and gave a public performance assisted by Mile. Son tag and M. Boucher. They first performed in Paris Spohr's double quartet in D minor, the second quartet being played by Boucher and his three sons. From Boulogne they crossed the Channel ; in England they seem to have been successful, at Dover, Ramsgate, and es- pecially at Brighton, where they resided for five months. They gave concerts throughout the South and West of England, and in Ireland from Cork to Dublin, where they arrived in November 1827. Early in 1828 they proceeded by Belfast to Glasgow, Edinburgh and London. In London they had only a few engagements in private houses ; Wex retired ill, and the quartet was broken tip till a new violinist was found in Anton Popp of Wurtzburg. The concerts began again with a series of six at Liverpool in the summer of 1829, and were con- tinued through the northern counties. But in the spring of 1830 the 'brothers' had had enough of a roving life. Zeugheer and Baader settled at Liverpool, Lidel and Popp at Dublin. Zeugheer resided in Liverpool till his death, Baader till his retirement in 1869.
The importance of the work achieved by the brothers Herrmann will be appreciated if it be remembered that, in England at least, except the Moralts they were the earliest four vio- linists who constantly played together. The Herrmanns were the second party of the kind ever seen here, and were the first to play in England any but the first six of Beethoven's quartets. In many towns they found that no one knew what a quartet was.
In 1831 he took the conductorship of the Gentlemen's Concerts at Manchester, which he retained till 1838. The Liverpool Phil- harmonic Society, originally a private society,
��began in Jan. 1840 to give public concerts with an orchestra, and in 1843 appointed Zeugheer director. He conducted their concerts from that date to March 28, 1865, shortly before his death, which took place suddenly June 15, 1865. But the great work of his life at Liverpool was tuition. Although not a pianist, he fully understood the art of training the hand. Mr. Chorley, the musical critic of the ' Athenaeum/ never had any musical teacher but Zeugheer, whose genius he estimated highly and proclaimed in print.
Zeugheer's playing was very pure in tone anil refined in expression, though his position was not favourable to original composition. He wrote two Symphonies, two Overtures, a Cantata, two sets of Entr'actes, a Violin Concerto op. 28, a Potpourri for violin and orchestra op. 6, an instrumental Quartet, an Andante and Rondo for piano and violin op. 21, and a Polacca fur four voices, few of them published. In Liver- pool he wrote an opera ' Angela of Venice ' to Chorley's words, but it was neither produced nor published, owing to the badness of the libretto. He published two sets of waltzes, a vocal duet ' Come, lovely May,' and other songs and glees. [R.M.]
ZEUNER, CHARLES. A German musician, born in 1797; resided for many years in the United States, conducting, composing, and teach- ing. He died at Philadelphia, Nov. 1857. [G.]
ZIMMERMANN, AGNES, pianist and com- poser, though born at Cologne, July 5, 1847, came to England very early, and at 9 became a student at the Royal Academy of Music, under Cipriani Potter and Steggall. Later she learnt from Pauer and Sir George Macfarren. Though occasionally playing outside the Academy, Miss Zimmermann did not relax her studies, and her works were often heard at the Royal Academy Students' concerts. In 1860 and 62 she obtained the King's Scholarship, and on Dec. 5, 1863, made her first public appearance at the Crystal Palace in two movements of Beethoven's Eb Concerto. In 1864 she followed this up by playing at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, and else- where in Germany. Though occasionally travel- ling abroad (as in 1879-80 and 1882-3), and always with success, she has made England her home, where her name is now a household word, and where its appearance in a concert-bill always betokens great execution and still greater taste and musicianship.
In playing she has always devoted herself to the classical school, once or twice in a very in- teresting manner. Thus it was she who per- formed (for the first and only time in England) Beethoven's transcription of his Violin Concerto for the Pianoforte at the Crystal Palace, Dec. 7, 1872. Her compositions are also chiefly in the classical form and style, and include three sonatas for piano and violin (ops. 16, 21, and 23), a sonata for piano, violin, and cello (op. 19), a sonata for piano solo (op. 22), a mazurka (op. n), and Presto alia Tarantella (op. 15), also several songs, duets, and 4 -part songs, and