��various arrangements of instrumental works, etc.
She has also edited the sonatas of Mozart and Beethoven for Messrs. Novello, and has an edition of Schumann's works in the press for the same firm. [G.]
ZIMMERMANN, PIERRE JOSEPH GOIL- LAUME, distinguished pianist and teacher, born in Paris, March 1 7, 1 785. The son of a pianoforte- maker, he entered the Conservatoire in 1798, studied the piano with Boieldieu, and harmony with Rey and Catel. In 1800 he carried off first prize for piano, Kalkbrenner taking the second. His musical education was completed by a course of advanced composition under Cherubini. In 1811 he was appointed 're'pe'- titeur,' or under-master of the pianoforte at the Conservatoire, became joint-professor in 1817, and professor in chief in 1820. This post he held till 1848, when he retired with the title of honorary inspector of pianoforte classes. During this long period he fulfilled his duties with indefatigable zeal and entire devotion, so much so indeed that for the sake of his constantly in- creasing pupils he entirely gave up appearing in public, and found little time for composition. He did however produce at the Ope'ra Comique in 1830 ' L'Enlevement,' in three acts, libretto by Saint -Victor, Scribe, and d'Epagny, wholly forgotten, and composed ' Nausica,' a grand opera, which was never performed. He also wrote a number of pianoforte pieces of various kinds, but his most important work is the 'Encyclopedic du Pianiste,' which comprises a complete method of pianoforte-playing, and a treatise on harmony and counterpoint, thus enabling a pupil to carry on his studies in play- ing and composition simultaneously. In 1811 Zimmermann won the post of Professor of Fugue and Counterpoint thrown open to competition on the death of Eler, but satisfied with the honour of victory decided to retain his favourite piano class. This excellent and devoted professor, a worthy recipient of the Legion of Honour, died in Paris Oct. 29, 1853. A daughter of his became Mme. Charles Gounod. [A. J.]
ZINGARA, LA. An Italian version of Balfe's BOHEMIAN GIRL. Produced at Her Majesty's theatre, London, Feb. 6, 1858. [G.]
ZINGARELLI, NICCOLO ANTONIO, born in Naples, April 4, 1 752, eldest son of Riccardo Tota Zingarelli, a tenor singer and teacher of singing. In 1759 his father died, leaving his mother with four children and very poor. The eldest boy was chief clerk in the Musical College of S. Maria di Loreto, and Niccolb was at once ad- mitted there as a resident pupil. 1 Here he and Cimarosa learnt composition under Fedele Fena- roli, whose ' Partimenti ' are still studied in the Neapolitan Conservatorio. Fenaroli was learned and religious, and his pupils loved him as a father. Although no great composer, he loved music, and as a teacher well deserves the grati- Utude of posterity. Zingarelli pursued his studies i See NAPLES, vol. 11. p. 444.
with such devotion as often tasked the patience of his master. When Fenaroli went for his. autumn holidays to Ottaiano, his pupil would plod the eleven miles from Naples on foot, in order to submit to his master a fugue or motet, the return journey seeming but light if his composition were satisfactory. By the rules of his College he was bound to study an instrument, and he selected the violin, on which he soon became very proficient. In Latin he made great pro- gress, and in old age was fond of airing his classical knowledge by frequent quotations. Among his teachers was Speranza, a learned contrapuntist, and the best pupil of Durante. Before leaving his College, Zingarelli produced his first opera, or rather intermezzo ' I Quattro Pazzi' which was performed by the pupils in the Conservatorio.
Soon after leaving the Conservatorio we find him teaching the violin in the Gargano family at Torre Annunziata, near Naples. Later on he gave lessons to the Duchess of Castelpagano, under whose patronage he pro- duced his first work at the San Carlo in 1779, the cantata ' Pigmalione,' which met with some success. On Aug. 13, 1781, his first opera, ' Montezuma,' was represented at the same house. It shows a style of the greatest sim- plicity and purity; and when afterwards per- formed in Vienna, Haydn praised it greatly, and foretold a career of success to its com- poser. Strongly recommended to the Arch- duchess Beatrice of Austria, he went to Milan, and was well received at the vice-regal court. Milan was to be henceforth the scene of Zinga- relli's many triumphs, and for La Scala he wrote most of his serious and .ill his comic operas. He began there with ' Alsinda' in 1785, which greatly pleased the Milanese public, though composed in seven days and in ill health, if we are to believe Carpani, who wrote most of Zingarelli's librettos, and asserts that he was an ocular witness, not only of the above feat, but also of the composition of the whole of ' Giulietta e Romeo ' in forty hours less than ten days. This really astounding facility was the result of Speranza's method of obliging his pupils to write the same composition many times over, with change of time and signature, but without any change in its fundamental poetical ideas. 'ALsinda' was soon followed by 'Armida/ 'Annibale,' 'Ifigenia in Aulide,' and 'Ricimero,' all given at La Scala during the two following years with enormous success.
Whilst thus satisfying the theatrical public, Zingarelli did not neglect his more congenial work of writing sacred music, and in 1787 he com- posed an oratorio of ' The Passion,' given at the church of S. Celso in Milan. From 1786 to 788 he wrote nine cantatas, ' Alceste,' 'Hero,' 'Sappho,' 'Nice d'Elpino,' 'L'Amor filiale,' ' Alcide al bivio,' ' Telemaco,' ' Oreste,' and ' II Trionfo di David ' ; all in Milan, except the last, which was given at San Carlo, Naples.
In 1789 Zingarelli was called to Paris to compose an opera for the Acade'mie Royale de