BILLINGTON, Thomas. Line 2 of article, omit 'probably.' Add that he died at Tunis in 1832.
BIRCH, Charlotte Ann, soprano singer, born about 1815, was musically educated at the Royal Academy of Music and by Sir George Smart. She appeared in public about 1834, confining herself at first to minor concerts. In 1836 she was engaged by the Sacred Harmonic Society and soon took a good position as a concert singer. In 1838 she made her first appearance at the Three Choirs Festivals at Gloucester, and sung subsequently at Hereford in 1840 and 1846, at Gloucester in 1841, and at Worcester in 1842, and was engaged at the Birmingham Festival of 1840. In 1844 she visited Germany and sang at Leipzig and other places. She returned to England in 1845, but quitted it again at the end of the season for Italy, where she essayed operatic singing. She reappeared in England early in 1846. On Dec. 20, 1847, she appeared on the English stage at Drury Lane in Balfe's 'Maid of Honour,' but did not succeed in establishing herself as an operatic singer. About 1856 increasing deafness compelled her to abandon the public exercise of her profession. Miss Birch possessed a beautiful soprano voice, rich, clear, and mellow, and was a good musician, but her extremely cold and inanimate manner and want of dramatic feeling greatly marred the effect of her singing. Her younger sister, Eliza Ann, born about 1830, also a soprano singer and pupil of Sir George Smart, first appeared about 1844, and died March 26, 1857.
[ W. H. H. ]
BIRMINGHAM FESTIVAL. Add that the festival of 1882 was the last conducted by Sir Michael Costa. It was distinguished by the first performance of Gounod's 'Redemption.' In 1885 Herr Richter was appointed conductor, and inaugurated his direction by producing the 'Messiah' as far as possible in the manner intended by Handel, i.e. without the additional accompaniment and the alterations introduced for effect. Gounod's 'Mors et Vita,' Stanford's 'Three Holy Children,' Dvořák's 'Spectre's Bride,' and Cowen's 'Sleeping Beauty,' were among the new works commissioned for the festival.
BISHOP, Ann, better known as Mme. Anna Bishop, was the daughter of a singing master named Rivière, and was born in London in 1814. She studied the pianoforte under Moscheles, and in 1824 became a student at the Royal Academy of Music. Here she remained until her marriage with Sir Henry Bishop in 1831. In this year she appeared as a singer at the Philharmonic and other concerts. [See vol. i. 57 b.] In 1839 she went on a tour in the provinces with Bochsa the harpist, and shortly after their return to London eloped with him to the continent. Almost all the remainder of her life was spent in travelling. Before her return to England in 1846 she had been singing for more than two years at the San Carlo in Naples. In 1847 she went to America, and remained there for some years. In 1855, while on a tour in Australia, Bochsa died, and Mme. Bishop returned by way of South America to New York, where she married a certain Schulz. Shortly afterwards she visited England, singing at the Crystal Palace in '58, and giving a farewell concert on Aug. 17, '59. Another considerable period was now passed in various parts of America. In 1865 she sailed from California for the Sandwich Islands, and in the following year suffered considerable loss in a wreck between Honolulu and China. India and Australia were next visited, and after a final visit to London she settled down in New York, where she died of apoplexy in March 1884. Her voice was a high soprano of brilliant but unsympathetic quality. (Dict. of Nat. Biog.)
BISHOP & SON, organ-builders in London. This factory was established about the end of the 18th century by James C. Bishop, and was known successively as Bishop, Son & Starr, Bishop, Starr & Richardson, Bishop & Starr, and now Bishop & Son. At different times they have built the organs of St. George's (Catholic) Cathedral, Southwark ; St. James's Piccadilly, and the Oratory, Brompton, all in London; also those of the Cathedral and of the Town Hall, Bombay. They are the inventors of the Claribella stop, the Anti-concussion Valves, and the Composition Pedals. [See vol. ii. pp. 598, 599.]
[ V. de P. ]
BISHOP, John, born in 1665, and educated (according to Hawkins) under Daniel Roseingrave. Between Michaelmas and Christmas, 1687, he was a lay clerk of King's College, Cambridge, and in the following year was appointed to teach the choristers. In 1695 he succeeded Jeremiah Clark as organist of Winchester College; he was afterwards appointed a lay- vicar of the Cathedral in place of T. Corfe, and in 1729 succeeded Vaughan Richardson as Cathedral organist. (Hawkins is wrong in calling him organist of Salisbury Cathedral.) He died Dec. 19, 1737, and was buried in the west side of the cloisters. MSS. by him are contained in the collections of the British Museum, Royal College of Music, and Christ Church, Oxford. Philip Hayes's 'Harmonia Wiccamica' includes some of his compositions. (Dict. of Nat. Biog.)
BISHOP, Sir Henry Rowley. Vol. i. p. 245 b, l. 22 from bottom, for 1833 read 1832, as the cantata was commissioned in that year and performed in 1833; for l. 8 from bottom read on the death of Dr. Crotch in 1847 he was appointed, in 1848. Add that he was twice married—first to a Miss Lyon, a singer who appeared in his 'Circassian Bride,' and, second, to Ann Rivière. [See Bishop, Ann, in Appendix.]
In the list of his productions the following corrections are to be made:—The date of 'Caractacus' is 1808. Add that 'Haroun Alraschid' is an alteration of 'The Aethiop.' 'Sadak and Kalastrade' is the correct title of one of the works of 1814. For 'Heir of Verona' read 'Heir of Vironi.' The date of 'Edward the