the most part taken from Denison's 'Clocks,' etc., will show the leading particulars of some of the most celebrated:—
|Great Bells of||Date||Diameter at mouth.||Weight|
|Ft. In.||Ts. Cw.|
|Moscow . . . . . . . . . . . . .||1733||21 6||193 0|
|St. Paul's London, 'Great Paul' .||1882||9 6||16 14|
|Munich . . . . . . . . . . . . . .||1493||7 3||6 5|
|Danzig . . . . . . . . . . . . .||1453||. .||6 1|
|Cologne . . . . . . . . . . . . .||1449||. .||6 0|
|Ratisbon||1325||. .||5 16|
|Magdeburg||1690||6 2||5 15|
|Leipzig||1634||. .||5 14|
|Breslau||1721||. .||5 13|
|Brunn||1515||. .||5 10|
|Ghent||. .||. .||5 10|
|Rodiz||1841||. .||5 10|
|Châlons||. .||. .||5 9|
|Lincoln||1835||6 10½||5 8|
|Mariazell||1810||. .||5 5|
|St, Paul's, London, old bell||1716||6 9½||5 4|
|Dresden||1787||. .||5 2|
|Rouen||. .||6 4½||5 9|
|Exeter, 'Peter'||1675||6 4||5 0|
|Frankfort||1371||6 4||5 0|
|Old Lincoln||1610||6 3½||4 18|
|Leeds Town Hall||1859||6 2||4 1|
|Valetto, Malta||. .||6 1||. .|
|Amiens||1736||6 0||5 0|
|Boulogne||. .||. .||4 0|
|Westminster, fourth||1857||6 0||3 18|
|" third||1858||4 6||1 13½|
|" second||1857||4 0||1 6|
|" first||1857||3 9||1 1|
|Exeter tenor||1676||5 11½||3 7|
|Hotel de Ville, Paris, clock bell||. .||. .||3 10|
|Canterbury||1762||5 9||3 10|
|Gloucester||15th cent.||5 8½||3 5|
|Manchester Royal Exchange, tenor or hour bell||. .||5 8½||3 3|
|" fourth||. .||4 0||1 3|
|" third||. .||3 1||0 10½|
|" second||. .||2 10||0 9|
|" first||. .||2 8||0 8|
Manchester Town Hall, 1877.
Bradford Town Hall.
|Hour bell, Twelfth||4||7||0|
A manual chiming apparatus, as distinct from chime barrel machines, was introduced by the late Rev. H. T. Ellacombe at Bitton Church. His system has been somewhat modified and elaborated by Messrs. Warner, the well-known bell-founders of London, who have of late years erected many of these instruments in churches for chiming either tunes or changes on church bells.
An apparatus for chiming by pneumatics has been introduced by Mr. Lewis, the church organ builder, which has some advantages, as the simple touch on a keyboard produces the required sound, but on the other hand the complication of an organ bellows and valves to supply the compressed air required for working, has not commended it for general use. The simple rope-pull apparatus before referred to may in a minute be put into gear for chiming, or out of gear to admit of the bells being rung.
The proportions and shapes of bells used for chimes should be of a different character from ringing bells, to admit of tune and accord in more pleasant harmonics, a point which also has bearing upon the cup or hemispherical form of chimes which have of late years been adopted, a flattened form of hemisphere giving far better results than the more circular or cup outlines.
[ S. B. G. ]
CHIPP, E. T. Line 7 of article, add that he was in the Queen's private band from 1843 to 1845. Line 12, the date of his appointment to the Panopticon is 1855. Line 14, the date of appointment to Holy Trinity, Paddington, is 1856. Add that he took the degree of Mus. B. at Cambridge in 1859, and that of Mus. D. in 1860. He died at Nice, Dec. 17, 1886. (Dict. of Nat. Biog.)
CHITARRONE. The instrument described under this name is in Italy generally called Arciliuto, the name Chitarrone being given to a large chitarra, or theorbo with a shorter neck, strung with wire, and played with a plectrum. The German authorities, Praetorius (1619) and Baron (1727), were followed by the writer.
[ A. J. H. ]
CHLADNI, E. F. F. In list of works, No. 4, for States read Stabes.
CHOLLET, Jean Baptiste Marie, born May 20, 1798, at Paris, was from 1804 to 1816 taught singing and the violin at the Conservatoire, and in 1814 gained a solfeggio prize. In 1815, the Conservatoire having been closed owing to political events, he became chorus singer at the Opera and the Italian and Feydeau Theatres. In 1818–25 he played in the provinces, under the name Dôme-Chollet, the quasi-baritone parts played formerly by Martin and others. In 1825 he played both at Brussels and the Opéra Comique, Paris, and obtained in 1826 an engagement at the latter, where, having adopted the tenor répertoire, he remained until 1832. His principal new parts were in operas of Harold and Auber, viz. Henri ('Marie'), Aug. 12, 1826, in which he made his first success by his rendering of the song 'Une robe legère'; Fritz, in 'La Fiancée,' Jan. 10, 1829; 'Fra Diavolo,' Jan. 28, 1830, and 'Zampa,' May 3, 1831. In 1832–35 he was again in Brussels, where hereafter he enjoyed even greater favour than he obtained in Paris. In 1834 he sang at the Hague, and in 1835 returned to the Opéra Comique, where he remained several years, and created several other parts in operas of Adam, Halévy, and Balfe, viz. Lionel in 'L'Éclair' (Halévy), Dec. 30, '35; Chapelon in 'Postilion de Lonjumeau,' Oct. 13, '36; Josselyn in 'Roi d'Yvetot,' Oct. 13, '42; Edward III. in 'Puits d'Amour,' Apr. 20, '43; 'Cagliostro,' Feb. 10, '44; Beaumanoir in 'Quatre fils d'Aymon' July 15, '44. He left the Comique, directed the Hague Theatre