Dr. W. Howard Russell, of the 'Times,' describes in chapter xviii. of 'My Diary North and South,' a song which made a remarkable impression on him, and which, from his description, appears to be the following:—
The following is a popular song among the Louisiana Creoles, and the words give an idea of the dialect:—
The subject has so many ramifications that full treatment is impossible in this article. Those interested will find it discussed in the following treatises by writers who have lived at the South, and made special studies of the subject:—
Dwight's Journal of Music, Nov. 8, 1862. Letter, Miss McKim, Philadelphia; probably the first occasion when public attention was called to the Slave songs.
Continental Monthly, Philadelphia, August, 1863. Article, 'Under the Palmettos,' Mr. H. G. Spaulding, with specimens of the music.
Atlantic Monthly, June, 1867. Article, 'Negro Spiritrials,' T. W. Higginson, with the words of many of the most popular hymns.
'Slave Songs of the United States,' New York, 1871. Words and tunes, the largest collection published.The Century, New York, Feb. 1886; Article, 'Creole Slave Dances.' April, 1886: article, 'Creole Slave Songs.' Both by Mr. G. W. Cable. Especially interesting because of the descriptions of negro customs in Louisiana, some of which are of remote African origin, and because of the explanation of the peculiar dialect of the Louisiana negroes—a mixture of French and English, sometimes a little Spanish, but each greatly modified by the negro's own method of speech. Gottschalk, who was a native of New Orleans, used some of the Creole music as subjects for free treatment on the pianoforte. Mr. J. A. Brockhoven, of Cincinnati, has written a suite for orchestra, based on Creole tunes, which has been performed at concerts in the United States.
[ F. H. J. ]
NERUDA, Mme. Add that on July 26, 1888, she married Sir Charles Hallé.
NESSLER, Victor, born Jan. 28, 1841, at Baldenheim in Alsace, at first studied theology at Strasburg, but the success of his essay at operatic composition, a work entitled 'Fleurette,' and produced there in 1864, induced him to devote himself to music. He then went to Leipzig, and obtained various posts as conductor of male choral societies, for the use of which he wrote a set of part-songs, etc. In 1870 he became choral director at the Stadt Theater, and in 1879 conductor at the Carolatheater in the same town. Meanwhile various operas had been brought out with varying success. The list is as follows:—'Die Hochzeitsreise' (1867); 'Dornröschen's Brautfahrt' (1868); 'Nachtwachter und Student' (1868); 'Am Alexandertag' (1869); 'Irmingard,' a more ambitious work than the previous productions, in five acts (1876); 'Der Rattenfänger von Hameln' (1879), an opera which rapidly spread his fame throughout Germany, and which has attained an enormous success; 'Die wilde Jäger' (1881); 'Der Trompeter von Säkkingen' (1884); and 'Otto der Schütz' (1886). The success of the 'Trompeter' was almost as great as that of the 'Rattenfänger.' Both owe their popularity to an easy superficiality of style, which commends itself to the less musical portion of the German public. When the 'Rattenfänger,' under the name of 'The Piper of Hamelin,' was produced at Covent Garden Theatre by the English Opera Company on Jan. 7, 1884, it achieved a well-merited failure. (Died May 27, 1890.)
[ M. ]
NEUMARK, Georg, born March 6, 1621, at Mühlhausen in Thuringia, became librarian and secretary to Duke Wilhelm II. of Weimar, where he died July 8, 1681. He was a renowned player on the harpsichord and viola da gnmba, but his fame rests upon his chorales, of some of which he wrote both words and music. Of these the most important is 'Wer nur den lieben Gott lässt walten.' This and other chorales by which his name is known appeared in one or other of his collections of hymns. These were 'Poetischmusikalisches Lustwäldchen,' etc. 1652, and an enlarged form of the same book, published at Jena in 1657 under the title of 'Poetischmusikalisches Lustwald.' Two of his productions seem to have been intended for the stage. They are 'Keuscher Liebesspiegel' (1649), which Dr. K. E. Schneider ('Das musikalisches Lied,' iii. 151) says is a kind of opera; and 'Politisches Gesprächsspiel' (Weimar 1662).
[ M. ]
NEVADA, Emma. See Wixom, vol. iv. p. 477.
NEW PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY. Add that the society came to an end in 1879, the concert of June 21 being the last concert given under the above title. The scheme was carried on for three years more under the title of Ganz's Orchestral Concerts.
NIBELUNGEN. Add that the trilogy, or tetralogy, as it is called in the article, was given at Her Majesty's Theatre on May 5–9, 1882. Four performances of the entire work took place.
NICODE, Jean-Louis, a pianist and composer of Polish birth, well known in Germany. He was born at Jerczik near Posen, in 1853, was brought at an early age to Berlin by his