Page:A Dictionary of Music and Musicians vol 4.djvu/761

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words by Picander, in the year 1725. The remaining one was a Passion according to St. Luke, the autograph of which is extant in the possession of Herr Joseph Hauser of Carlsruhe. There is no doubt that Bach wrote the MS. at some time between 1731 and 1734, but from internal considerations it is equally certain that it was not then newly composed. If the whole composition is ultimately proved to be genuine, it must be assigned to a very early period of Bach's career, probably to the first Weimar period; the question of its authenticity must be still regarded, however, as an open one, although there are many numbers in the work which bear evident traces of Bach's style. A great boon has been recently conferred upon lovers of music by the publication of the work in vocal score (Breitkopf & Härtel, 1886). The whole subject of the Passion settings is discussed at length in Spitta's Life of Bach, book v. chap. vii.

The four settings by Heinrich Schütz, mentioned on p. 665b have been published in Breitkopf & Härtel's complete edition of that composer's works, vol. i, and his Matthew Passion has also appeared in vocal score.

[ M. ]

PASTORALE. Line 20 of article, for in May read on March 19.

PATON, Mary Anne. Line 2 of article, for master read writing-master. Last line but one of same column, for July 22 read July 23. P. 673a, l. 15 from bottom, for 1854 read 1864.

[ W. H. H. ]

PATRICK, Richard. Omit the words (sometimes called Nathan or Nathaniel). That name belongs to a composer whose 'Songs of sundry natures' were printed by Este in 1597.

PATTI, Adelina. Line 2 of article, for Feb. 19 read Feb. 10. Both parents of Mme. A. Patti were Italians, her father having been born at Catania, Sicily, and her mother at Rome. The latter's maiden name was Chiesa, and before her marriage with Signor Patti she had married a certain Signor Barilli. Their son, Antonio Barilli, a musician, died at Naples, aged 50, June 15, 1876. (Pougin, Supplement to Fétis.) In 1885 Mme. Patti was divorced from the Marquis de Caux, and in 1886 married M. Nicolini. [See above, p. 731b.]

[ A. C. ]

PAUKEN. The German name for Kettle Drums, commonly used in orchestral scores. See Drum, vol. i. p. 463.

[ V. de P. ]

PAVAN. For another description of the dance see Bishop Earle's 'Microcosmographie,' ed. by Bliss (Nares's Glossary).

PAXTON, Stephen. Add that he died Aug. 18, 1787, aged 52, and was buried in St. Pancras old churchyard.

[ W. H. H. ]

PEDALIER. The sentence in lines 7–11 of the article is to be corrected, as recent researches made by Mr. Dannreuther leave scarcely any doubt that these works were intended for the organ. Add that Gounod has written a suite concertante for pedal piano with orchestra, and a fantasia for the same on the Russian National Hymn, both for Mme. Lucie Palicot, by whom the former was introduced at the Philharmonic on April 21, 1887.

PEDALS. P. 682a, l. 22, for wrote once only up to F read wrote twice up to F and once up to F♯.

PENTATONIC SCALE. The name given to an early tonality, of very imperfect construction, but extremely beautiful in its æsthetic aspect, and peculiar to a great number of National Melodies, especially those of Scotland.[1]

The term is an unfortunate one, since it leads us to expect a Scale based upon five intervals of a Tone; whereas, it really means a Scale formed from the combination of five fixed sounds.

No written record tending to throw a light upon the origin or history of the Pentatonic Scale has been preserved; but the construction of the Scale itself furnishes us with a very valuable clue. The five sounds employed—Ut, Re, Mi, Sol, La—correspond exactly with those of the Hexachord, minus the Fa. Now the Fa was precisely the crux which prevented the completion of the system of the Hexachords, with their various Mutations,[2] until the difficulty was removed by the invention of the Fa fictum[3]—presumably by Guido d'Arezzo[4]—in the opening years of the 11th century. It is, therefore, more than probable that the Pentatonic Scale belongs to a period anterior to that date: how far anterior, it is absolutely impossible even to hazard a guess.

The characteristics of the Scale led to certain marked peculiarities in the form of the Melodies for which it was employed; and there is abundant proof that these peculiarities were continued, as a feature of 'style,' after the invention of the Hexachords supplanted the older tonality by a more perfect system: for instance, the Melody of 'The Flowers of the Forest,' which cannot have been composed before the year 1513, exhibits, in its first strain, the strongest possible pentatonic character, while the second strain is in the pure Hypomixolydian Mode (Mode VIII)—assuming, that is, the F♮ to be genuine; a fact of which the Skene MS. leaves but little doubt.

The Chinese Melody, 'Chin chin joss,' introduced by Weber into the Overture to 'Turandot,' is, if we may trust an apparently uncorrupted copy, in the Pentatonic Scale; though some versions introduce an F♮, which would reduce it to the Mixolydian Mode (Mode VII).

[ W. S. R. ]

PENTATONON (πεντάτονόν) The Greek term for the interval known in Modern Music as the Augmented Sixth, which consists, in the aggregate, of five Tones; i.e. two Greater and two Lesser Tones, and one Diatonic and one Chromatic Semitone.

The term cannot be correctly applied to the Minor Seventh, since, though this contains the aggregate of five Tones, in Equal Temperament, it contains more than that in Just Intonation—

  1. See Scotish Music.
  2. See Hexachord, vol. 1; Mutations, vol. ii.
  3. See Fa Fictum, Appendix.
  4. See Guido d'Arezzo, Appendix.