��a fair at Berchtesgaden, and taking them to Esterhaz, summoned some of his orchestra to an important rehearsal. When they found that they were expected to play a new symphony upon these toys (the only real instruments in the score are two violins and a double bass) the most experienced musicians in the band failed to keep their time for laughing. The original parts are entitled ' Sinfonia Berchtolsgadensis ' ; the toy instruments employed are a ' cuckoo ' playing E and G, a trumpet and drum in G, a whistle, a triangle, and a * quail ' in F. There are three movements, the last of which is played three times over, faster and faster each time. The symphony is in C major, and was written in 1 788. [See PohlV Haydn,' vol. ii. p. a 26, etc.] Andreas Romberg wrote a symphony for much the same instruments, with the addition of a pianoforte duet, a rattle, and a bell. He attempts more elaborate modulations than Haydnventures to use, but his symphony lacks the fun and fresh- ness of the older master's work, although his slow movement, an Adagio lauientabile, is very hu- morous. Mendelssohn wrote two the first for Christmas 1827, for the same orchestra as Hay- dn's, the second for Christmas 1828. Both seem to have vanished. [See vol. ii. p. 261.] Mr. Franklin Taylor has written one for piano and toys which is not infrequently played. [M.]
TRACTULUS. I. A kind of Neuma, used be- fore the completion of the Stave. [See NEUMA].
II. The Guidon, or Sign, used at the end of a Stave, to indicate the note with which the next Stave begins. (In English it is called a Di- rect.) [W.S.R.]
TRACTUS (Deriv. traho, traxi, to bear; Eng. Tract). A form of Versicle sung, in the Roman Church, after the Gradual, between the Epistle and Gospel. The Graduale and Tractus owe their names to the primitive custom of sing- ing the Epistle and Gospel from two Pulpits, or Ambones, placed on opposite sides of the Choir ; the Epistle being sung on the south, and the Gospel on the north side when the orientation of the Church was correct. The Graduale was so called, because it was sung while the Deacon was ascending the steps, on the Gospel-side, The Tractus owed its name to the ceremony of carrying the book from one side to the other. The Plain-Chaunt Melodies to both are of the highest antiquity. [W.S.R.]
TRANSCRIPTION. A term which in ils strict meaning should be the exact equivalent of ARRANGEMENT, but which in practice implies a different, and in most cases a far less worthy pro- duction, since the transcriber rarely if ever fails to add something of his own to the work he selects for treatment. Among the earliest ex- amples of the transcription in this sense are the versions of tunes, sacred and secular, contained in the VIRGINAL BOOKS, which no doubt were executed to order, or to show off the skill of some illustrious performer. It is curious to notice how constant fashion has been in its adherence to this form of music. ^Yilliam Babell's harpsi-
chord lessons upon the favourite opera airs of Handel's time are of the same order, artistically speaking, as Thalberg's ' Home, sweet home,' or any other piece of the class in modern days. Earnest musicians seem always to have viewed these productions with the same disapproval. Burney's opinion of Babell is followed by a pas- sage which may most profitably be studied in this connection (Hist. vol. iv. p. 648). Here and there, of course, are to be found transcriptions which consist of something besides unmeaning runs and brilliant passages, and which even help to elucidate the intention of the original composition. Among Liszt's versions of Schu- bert's songs, there are a few, such as the 'Erlkonig,' of which this may be said, but in spite of such brilliant exceptions as this the form cannot be regarded with unmixed satisfaction. [M.]
TRANSFORMATION OF THEMES. See METAMORPHOSIS in Appendix, vol. iv. p. 717.
TREE, ANNA MARIA, the elder sister of Mrs. Charles Kean (Ellen Tree), born 1802 in Lon- don, was taught singing by Lanza and Tom Cooke. She was first engaged at Bath, where she appeared as Polly in ' The Beggar's Opera/ Nov. 13, i Si 8. She made her de"but at Covent Garden as Rosina in 'The Barber of Seville.' Sept. 10, 1819; became a popular actress and ballad singer, and remained at that theatre, with the exception of her provincial engagements, until her retirement, June 1 5, 1 825. She made a great success as Luciana, Dec. ii, 1819; Viola, Nov. 8, 1820; Julia, Nov. 29, 1821; Imogen, June 19, 1822; Rosalind, Dec. 10, 1824; in Rey- nolds and Bishop's musical adaptations of Shake- speare. Her principal new parts were Louison in ' Henri Quatre,' April 22, 1820 ; Zaide in the younger Colman's * Law of Java,' May 1 1, 1822 ; Lady Matilda in Planches 'Maid Marian,' adapted from Peacock's novel, Dec. 3, 1822 ; Clari the Maid of Milan, in Payne's operatic play, wherein she originally sang ' Home, sweet Home,' May 8, 1823 ; Mary Copp in Payne's 'Charles II.' May 27, 1824 (these last two she performed at her farewell benefit) ; the Baroness Matilda in 'The Frozen Lake,' a mutilated version of Auber's 'Neige,' Nov. 26, 1824, etc. She married Mr. James Bradshaw, afterwards member for Canterbury, Aug. 15, 1825, and died at her residence, Queen's Gate Terrace, Feb. 17, 1862. Chorley described her as a singer with a cordial, expressive mezzo-soprano voice, and much real feeling. [A.C.]
TRESOR MUSICAL. A collection of music edited by the learned M. Robert van Malde- ghem, whose researches in the monasteries and libraries of the continent, including the Vatican, have yielded splendid results, and, with the encouragement of the Belgian Government have rescued from obscurity many works of the old Flemish and Belgian composers, under whom the golden age of counterpoint was reached. The biographical notices, sometimes accompanied with portraits, are of interest, but would gain in