in orthodox fashion, but though offered her life if she would swear on the Gospels, she refused to burden her soul with the sin, and for this she was condemned as a heretic.
That all antisacerdotahsts should agree, even under persecution, in a common creed, is not to be expected. In the decrees against heretics and in the writings of controversialists we meet the names of other sects, but they are of too little importance in numbers and duration to require more than a passing notice. The Passagii ("all-holy" or "vagabond" ) or Circumcisi were Judaizing Christians, who sought to escape the domination of Rome by a recourse to the old law and denying the equality of Christ with God. The Joseppini were still more obscure, and their errors appear mostly to lie in the region of artificial and unclean sexual asceticism. The Siscidentes were virtually the same as the Waldenses, the only difference being as to the administration of the Eucharist. The Ordibarii and Ortlibenses, followers of Ortlieb of Strassburg, who flourished about the year 1216, were likewise externally akin to the Waldenses, but indulged in doctrinal errors to which we shall have to recur hereafter. The Runcarii appear to have been a connecting Hnk between the Poor Men of Lyons and the Albigenses or Manichaeans ; an intermediate sect whose existence might be presupposed as an almost necessary result of the common interests and common sufferings of the two leading branches of heresy, 
- MSS. Bib. Nat. Coll. Moreau, 1274, fol. 72.
- Bonacursi Vit. Hsereticorum (D'Achery I. 211, 212).— Lucii PP. III. Eplst. 171. — Muratori Antiquitat. Dissert, lx.— Constit. General. Frid. II. ann. 1220, § 5. — Lucae Tudens. de altera Vita Lib. in. cap. 3. — Anon. Passaviens. contra Waldens. cap. 6. — P. de Pilichdorf contra Waldens. cap. 12. — Hoffman, Geschichte der Inquisition, II. 371. — Schmidt, Hist, des Cathares, II. 284.