harvest-time. Those whom we deem the adversaries of God he may make superior to us in heaven." Wazo, indeed, had heard that heretics were commonly detected by their pallor, and, under the delusion that those who were pale must necessarily be heretics, many good Cathohcs had been slain. By the year 1052 the heresy had extended to Germany, where the pious emperor, Henry the Black, caused a number to be hanged at Goslar. During the rest of the century we hear Uttle more of them, though traces of them occur at Toulouse in 1056 and Beziers in 1062, and about the year 1200 they are described as infecting the whole diocese of Agen.
In the twelfth century the evil continued unabated in northern France. Count John of Soissons was noted as a protector of heretics, but, in spite of his favor, Lisiard, the bishop, captured several, and gave the first example of what subsequently became common enough — the use of the ordeal to determine heretical guilt. One, at least, of the accused, floated when thrown into exorcised water, and the bishop, not knowing w^hat to do with them, held them in prison while he went to the Council of Beauvais, in 1114, to consult his episcopal brethren. The populace, however, felt no doubts on the subject, and, fearing that they would be deprived of their prey, broke open the jail and burned them during the bishop's absence — a manifestation of holy zeal which greatly pleased the pious chronicler. About the same time Flanders was the scene of another discovery of Catharism. The heresiarch, on being summoned before the Bishop of Cambrai, made no secret of his
- Ademari S. Cibardi Hist. Lib. iii. c. 49, 59. — Pauli Carnot. Vet. Aganon. Lib. VI. c. 3. — Frag. Hist. Aquitan. et Frag. Hist. Franc. (Pithoei Hist. Franc. Scriptt. xi. pp. 83, 84). — Radulf. Glabri Hist. iii. 8, iv. 2. — Gesta Synod. Aurel. circa 1017 (D'Achery L 604-6).— Chron. S. Petri Vivi.— Synod. Atrebat. ann. 1025 (Labbe et Coleti XI. 1177, 1178; Hartzheim. Concil. German. HL 68).— Landulf. Sen. Mediol. Hist. H. 27. — Gesta Episcop, Leodiens. cap. 60, 61. — Hermann. Contract, ann. 1052. — Lambert. Hersfeldens. Annal. ann. 1053. — Schmidt, Hist, des Cathares, I. 37.— Radulf. Ardent. T. I. P. ii. Hom. 19.
Bishop Wazo's complaint that pallor was considered a positive proof of heresy was by no means a new one. In the fourth century it was regarded as sufficient to betray the Gnostic and Manichgean asceticism of the Priscillianists'(Sulpic. Severi Dial. iii. cap. xi.), and Jerome tells us that the orthodox who were pale with fasting and maceration were stigmatized as Manichseans (Hieron. Epist. ad Eustoch. c. 5). To the end of the twelfth century pallor continued to be regarded as a diagnostic symptom of Catharism (P. Cantor. Verb, abbrev. c. 78).