Page:A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages-Volume I .pdf/16

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Hesitation to Punish in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries 218
Uncertainty as to Form of Punishment 220
Burning Alive Adopted in the Thirteenth Century 221
Evasion of Responsibility by the Church 223
The Temporal Authority Coerced to Persecute 224
Persecution of the Dead 230
Motives Impelling to Persecution 233
Cruelty of the Middle Ages 234
Exaggerated Detestation of Heresy 236
Influence of Asceticism 238
Conscientious Motives 239


Material for Reform within the Church 243
Foulques de Neuilly 244
Durán de Huesca anticipates Dominic and Francis 246
St. Dominic, his Career and Character 248
His Order founded in 1214.—Its Success 251
St. Francis of Assisi 256
His Order Founded.—Injunction of Poverty 257
He Realizes the Christian Ideal. 200
Extravagant Laudation of Poverty 264
Influence of the Mendicant Orders 266
Emotional Character of the Age.—The Pastoureaux.—The Flagellants 268
The Mendicants Rendered Independent of the Prelates. 273
Their Utility to the Papacy 274
Antagonism between them and the Secular Clergy. 278
The Battle Fought out in the University of Paris 281
Victory of the Mendicants.—Unappeasable Hostility 289
Degeneracy of the Orders 294
Their Activity as Missionaries 297
Their Functions as Inquisitors 299
Inveterate Hostility between the Orders 302


Uncertainty in the Discovery and Punishment of Heretics 305
Growth of Episcopal Jurisdiction 308
Procedure in Episcopal Courts.—The Inquisitorial Process 309
System of Inquests 311