Page:A Voyage to Terra Australis Volume 1.djvu/484

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[South Coast.

this longitude is reduced to that place by the application of the difference shown by the time keepers to have existed between the two situations. In ascertaining this difference, the rates of going allowed to the time keepers are generally those found at the place which is to be fixed; whether applied to observations taken before arriving, or after quitting that place. This, however, could be done only at those stations where rates had been observed; at the intermediate points, where the result of lunar distances is given principally as an object of comparison with the time keepers, the rates allowed in the reduction are those found at the station previously quitted; but then the difference of longitude is corrected by the quantity consequent on the following supposition: that the time keepers altered their rates from those at the previous, to those at the following station, in a ratio augmenting in arithmetic progression. The difference of longitude, thus corrected when necessary, is given under the head of Reduction by time keepers; and the longitudes reduced by it to the place intended to be fixed, are taken to be of equal authority with those resulting from observations made in the place itself.

7th. But these longitudes, whether reduced to, or observed in, the place to be fixed, still require a correction which is of more importance than any of those before mentioned. The theories of the solar and lunar motions not having reached such a degree of perfection as to accord perfectly with actual observation at Greenwich, the distances calculated from those theories and given in the almanack become subject to some error; and consequently so do the longitudes deduced from them. The quantities of error in the computed places of the sun and moon, have been ascertained at Greenwich as often as those luminaries could be observed; and Mr. Pond, the astronomer royal, having permitted access for this purpose to the table of errors kept in the Observatory, Mr. Crosley has calculated the corresponding effects on the longitude, and proportioned these to the time when our observations were taken. The combined effect of the two errors forms a correction to the longitudes obtained from the