common hoe; and an important discovery lately adopted, of converting pig iron into bar ditto. To this work must also be added that of Messrs. Hawkes', at New-Deptford, on the south shore, contiguous to Gateshead, 2d. The steel-manurfactories at Swallwell, Team, &c. 3d. A new smelting-work at Lemington, where the iron-stone procured from Whitley and Scarborough is smelted.
- 4th. A great many founderies.
- 4. Lead-works; which also admit of the following divisions : 1st. Five works for the manufactory of white and red lead, and litharge. 2d. Two or three refineries for extracting the silver from lead.
- 5. Several extensive works for the manufacture of copperas from the pyrites in the coal-mines.
- 6. Colour-works.
- 7. Salt-works; these, indeed, have much declined since the great extension of the Cheshire salt trade. The salt is chiefly produced from seawater, by evaporation; but some is procured also from salt-springs; one of which is applied to
- 8. A Soda-work; for the making of which its brine is particularly exempted from the salt-duty.
- 9. Soap-works.—10. Two extensive works for coal-tar, varnish, and lamp-black.
- 11. Smelts and sal-ammoniac works,VOL. I.V