Page:A tour through the northern counties of England, and the borders of Scotland - Volume I.djvu/327

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common hoe; and an important discovery lately adopted, of converting pig iron into bar ditto. To this work must also be added that of Messrs. Hawkes', at New-Deptford, on the south shore, contiguous to Gateshead, 2d. The steel-manurfactories at Swallwell, Team, &c. 3d. A new smelting-work at Lemington, where the iron-stone procured from Whitley and Scarborough is smelted.

4th. A great many founderies.
4. Lead-works; which also admit of the following divisions : 1st. Five works for the manufactory of white and red lead, and litharge. 2d. Two or three refineries for extracting the silver from lead.
5. Several extensive works for the manufacture of copperas from the pyrites in the coal-mines.
6. Colour-works.
7. Salt-works; these, indeed, have much declined since the great extension of the Cheshire salt trade. The salt is chiefly produced from seawater, by evaporation; but some is procured also from salt-springs; one of which is applied to
8. A Soda-work; for the making of which its brine is particularly exempted from the salt-duty.
9. Soap-works.—10. Two extensive works for coal-tar, varnish, and lamp-black.
11. Smelts and sal-ammoniac works,