Page:Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography (1892, volume 3).djvu/669

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name. The son was graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1821, studied law under Peter Duponeeau, and was admitted to the bar, 1 Feb., 1827. Before this he had become a member of the law academy of Philadelphia, where most of the young lawyers of that day were trained. While yet a student, he wrote " An Essay on Equity in Pennsylvania" (Philadelphia, 1826), which at- tracted much attention, was published by order of the academy, and received high praise from Chan- cellor Kent and Chief-Justice Marshall. Judge George Sharswood, in an address before the law academy, said he had heard that Lord Brougham once remarked to an American lawyer : " If your law students produce such masterly treatises, your lawyers must be men of unusual learning." Mr. Laussat also edited Fonblanque's " Equity " (Phila- delphia, 1831 ; Brookfield, 1835).

LAUTARO, or LATUR (low-tah'-ro), Araucanian chief, b. in the valley of Tucapel in 1537 ; d. in Mataquito in December, 1556. He belonged to the noble order of Ulmenes. In one of the hostile incursions of Gen. Valdivia he was taken prisoner, employed as Valdivia's page, and baptized with the name of Felipe Diaz. On 3 Dec, 1553, the toqui Caupolican was in great peril of losing the battle of Tucapel, but at the moment when his army was almost defeated, young Lautaro, who was with the Spanish garrison, deserted their lines. and, grasping a lance, turned against them, shouting to his countrymen to follow him to victory. The Spaniards were defeated and the fort of Tucapel destroyed. As soon as Valdivia, who was in Concepcion, heard this news he marched with all the forces he could gather, and on 1 Jan., 1554, encountered the Araucanians near the ruins of Tucapel. The Vidians, by the advice of Lautaro, attacked Valdivia with different bodies successively, so that they always presented fresh forces. The Spaniards were defeated, Valdivia made prisoner, and, notwithstanding the entreaties of Lautaro, killed, after suffering cruel tortures. After this victory the Araucanian national assembly appoint- ed Lautaro lieutenant-toqui. and commander of a second army, with which he intrenched himself in the mountains of Mariguenu. In 1554, in this place, he defeated Gen. Villagra and captured a large number of prisoners, horses, and six pieces of artillery. In the same year he took possession of the fortress of Concepcion, plundered it, set the city on fire, and levelled its forts, and in 1555 he destroyed the city a second time. In 1556, at the head of 600 picked men, he set out for Santiago with the intention of taking possession of it. On the banks of the river Claro he defeated the Spanish forces four times ; but toward the end of the year he met his death, Gen. Villagra, who was guided by a friendly Indian over an obscure and generally unknown road, having surprised and defeated him at night in his camp.

LAUZON, Jean de, governor of New France, b. in France in 1582. He was the intendant of the company of the Cent associes in 1627. In 1642 he was engaged in furthering the restoration of Que- bec to France, and he subsequently procured the cession of Montreal to M. de la Dauversiere. In 1651 he became the fourth governor of New France, continuing in office for five years. The chief events of his administration were the nego- tiation of a treaty of peace with the Iroquois, es- pecially with the Mohawks, the arrival of a strong re-enforcement for Montreal, and the establishment of a mission among the Onondagas. He was the friend and protector of the Jesuits, and confided to them the conversion of the savages. LAUZUN, mm ml Louis de Gontaut, Due de, French soldier, b. in Paris, 15 April, 1747; d. there, 31 Dec, 1793. In consequence of his having published a pamphlet entiled •' L'etat de defense de l'Angleterre," he was given the command of an expedition against Senegal, Gambia, and other English settlements on the African coast, which he captured early in 1779. Greatly reduced in pecuniary resources through dissipation, he determined to join La- fayette and enlist in the American army. On his arrival in the United States, he was warmly welcomed by the Con- tinental leaders, and given the command of a troop of 500 cavalry, which became known as " Lauzun's legion." He took part in the siege of Yorktown and in the attack on New York in 1781. His handsome face and fine figure, his talents, his

wit, and his bravery won him the friendship of those who abhorred his profligacy.

He returned to France in 1783. became Due de Biron in 1788, was a delegate to the states-gen- eral, and a confidant and secret agent of Philippe Egalite. On 9 July, 1792, he was appointed com- mander-in-chief of the Army of the Rhine. In 1793, on account of the machinations of secret agents, who incited his troops to insubordina- tion, he laid his resignation before the committee of public safety. The latter refused to accept it, and appealed to his patriotism. He withdrew it for the time, captured Saumur. and defeated the Vendean army under the walls of Parthenay, but afterward insisted that he should be relieved of his command. Various charges, including that of being too lenient with the Vendeans, were then brought against him. and he was removed from his command without being allowed a hearing, imprisoned at Abbaye, brought before the revo- lutionary tribunal on 31 Dec. and condemned to death on the pretext that he had conspired against the republic. On the scaffold Lauzun pro- fessed to be thoroughly disgusted with life. A moment before his execution he said, turning to his companions in misfortune : " All is over, gentle- men ; I am about to start on the long journey." Then, handing a glass of wine to the executioner, " Take it." he said : " you need courage in prosecut- ing a trade like yours." See " Memoires de M. le due de Lauzun " (2 vols., Paris, 1822).

LAVAL, Antony J. de, clergyman, b. in Ly- ons, France, in the 17th century; d. in France in 1758. He was a Jesuit, and appears to have been for some time a missionary in Louisiana. He wrote " Voyage de la Louisiane, en 1720-1728. dans lequel on traite plusieurs matieres de physique, astrono- mie, geographie et marine."

LAVAL. Jacint, soldier, b. about 1762 ; d. in Harper's Ferry, Va., 2 Sept., 1822. He came to this country as cornet of dragoons in Rochambeau's army. Subsequently he was sheriff of Charleston, S. C., and was appointed captain of dragoons in the U. S. army, 3 May, 1809. He be-