for the see of Quebec ; but his consecration was de- layed, partly by the hostility of the archbishop of Rouen, who claimed jurisdiction over New France, and partly by the desire of the pope to establish a vicariate apostolic, depending immediately upon himself. A compromise was effected, and Laval was consecrated vicar apostolic of Quebec and bishop of Petraea in partibus, 8 Dec, 1658. He reached Quebec, 16 June, 1659, and his authority was generally acknowledged. He organized par- ishes in Quebec and the neighborhood, and as more priests continued to arrive he relieved the Jesuits of their charges as pastors of parishes, and sent them to the Indian missions, lie travelled through his vicariate shortly after his arrival, and in the journey he contracted the seeds of the dis- ease that finally forced him to resign his bishop- ric. Learning that there were hitherto unknown tribes north and west of Lake Huron, he took measures for supplying them with priests. Laval was for some time powerless to prevent the sale of liquor to the Indians by the French traders. At- tributing his want of success in dealing with this and other evils to the fact that Quebec was a vica- riate apostolic and not a titular bishopric, he went to France and laid the matter before the king, also asking that a chapter should be instituted and a seminary established, and proposing that a civil council should be formed for the protection of in- dividuals from the arbitrary power of the governor- fenerals. The king accepted these proposals, but is negotiations with the pope for the erection of Quebec into a titular bishopric did not succeed until some years afterward. Laval sailed for Canada in 1663 in company with Augustine de Mezy, who was appointed governor at his request. On his arrival he at once set about building the church of Quebec on the site of the chapel that had been erected by Champlain. It was finished in 1664. The new governor now quarrelled with Laval, and the latter procured his recall in 1665. Having founded a "grand seminaire" for the edu- cation of priests, Laval opened a " petit seminaire " as a preparatory college. 9 Oct., 1668. On the rec- ommendation of Jean Baptist Colbert he made an effort to erect schools and a college for the educa- tion of Indian children, but did not meet with suc- cess. In 1669 the liquor traffic with the Indians was renewed, and Laval excommunicated all that engaged in it or favored it. The governor. Daniel de Courcelles, believed himself included in the anathema, and complained bitterly of the bishop, but the latter was sustained by the French court. In 1670 the vicariate of Quebec was erected into a titular bishopric, and Laval returned to France in 1672 to obtain the bulls of consecration. He re- turned to Canada toward the end of 1675. and found that, notwithstanding his efforts, the liquor traffic with the Indians was carried on more open- ly than ever. Frontenac, the governor, had per- suaded Colbert that it aided the French in exer- cising an influence among the Indian tribes. After two years of protest Laval succeeded in obtaining a decree that regulated but did not prohibit it. In 1678 Laval laid the foundation of the Seminary of the holy family, which was to take the place of the two seminaries that he had founded before, and he gave all his property for its support. In 1682 he engaged in a dispute with the Recollets, which was ended by the recall of the more violent members of that order from Canada. These disorders and his feeble health decided him to resign his see, which he did in 1684. going to France for that purpose. Notwithstanding the efforts of his family to retain him at home, he sailed in 1688 for Canada, where he retired into the seminary that he had erected. His personal influence was still great, and, during the absence of Bishop Saint Vallier in 1691-2 and 1700-'ll, he co-operated with those that were intrusted with the administration of the diocese. His seminary was burned, 15 Nov., 1701, and again in October, 1705, after it had been re- built, and he passed his last days in a part of the building that the flames had spared. lie was ven- erated as a saint after his death, and miracles were ascribed to his intercession. The Roman Catholic church in Canada has petitioned the pope for his canonization, and Laval university, Quebec, is named after him. His life has been written by Louis Bertrend (Cologne. 1751), and by an anony- mous author (Quebec, 1845).
LAVAL-MONTMORENCY, Mathien Paul Louis, Due de, soldier, b. in 1748; d. in Paris, France, 27 Dec, 1809. He was the son of the Comte de Laval-Montmorency, who became a marshal of France in 1747. The son commanded in the American Revolution, under Rochambeau, the " D'Auvergne " regiment, which was remarkable for the severity of its discipline. — His son. Mathieu Jean Felicity soldier, b. in 1767: d. in 1826, served under his father's orders in this country, and was wounded in a naval action near Chesapeake bay in 1781. In 1821 he became minister of foreign affairs in the French government.
LAYERDIÈRE, Charles Honore, Canadian educator, b. in Chateau-Richer, Canada. 23 Oct., 1826 : d. in Quebec, 27 March, 1873. He was ordained as a Roman Catholic priest in August, 1851, became professor in the Seminary of Quebec, and was appointed librarian of Laval university on the establishment of that institution. While a student he founded and edited for several years "L'Abeille," a college journal, to which he contributed many historical articles. He aided in the publication of three volumes of " Jesuit Relations " concerning early missions in Canada (Quebec, 1858) ; edited the voyages of Champlain, with notes and a biography (5 vols., 1870) : the " Journal des Jesuites" (1871); wrote a "Histoire du Canada " for schools ; an account of '• Notre Dame de Recouvrance d'Quebec " : and " A la memoire du R. P. Ennemond Masse, S. J.," one of the earliest Jesuit missionaries, whose grave at Sillery he discovered and marked with a fine monument. He also edited several books of songs and hymns, including "Chansonniers des colleges," "Cantiques a l'usage des maisons d'education," three editions of the " Chants liturgique," " La semaine sainte," and " Le rituel Romain. '
LAVIALLE. Peter Joseph, R. C. bishop, b. in Lavialle, Auvergne, France, in 1820; d. in Nazareth, Ky.. 11 May. 1867. He studied for the ministry under the Sulpitian fathers, but, before he had reached the age for ordination, he was persuaded by his relative, Bishop Chabret, to come to Kentucky. He reached Louisville in 1841, and soon afterward entered the diocesan seminary of St. Thomas near Bardstown. He was ordained priest in 1844, and from that time till 1849 was attached to the pastorate of the Cathedral of St. Louis, Louisville. He was then appointed professor in the Seminary of St. Thomas, was president of St. Mary's college, Marion county, from 1856 till 24 Sept., 1865, when he was consecrated bishop of Louisville. Bishop Lavialle examined into the condition of every congregation, religious house, and educational establishment under his jurisdiction. He built four churches in the city of Louisville alone, and allowed himself no rest until his health was ruined.