management the school flourished, and in 1836 was transformed into Marshall college, of which he became the first president. He published " Psy- chology, or a View of the Human Soul" (New York. 1840), and left in an unfinished state works on Christian Ethics" and "^Esthetics." A volume of his sermons, edited by Emanuel V. Gerhart, was published under the title of "The Inner Life of the Christian" (Philadelphia, 1856).
RAUCH, John Henry, physician, b. in Lebanon, Pa., 4 Sept.. 1828; d. in Chicago, 24 March. 1894. He was graduated in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and settled in Burlington. Iowa. In 1S50, on the organization of the State medical society, he was appointed to report on the " Medical and Economic Botany of Iowa," and this report was afterward published (1851). He was an active mem- ber of the Iowa historical and geological institute, and made a collection of material especially ichthyologic from the upper Mississippi and Mis- souri rivers for Prof. Agassiz, a description of which was published in "Silliman's Journal" (1855). In 185? he was appointed professor of materia mediea and medical botany in Rush medical college, Chi- cago, which chair he filled for the next three years. In 1859 he was one of the organizers of the Chicago college of pharmacy and filled its chair of materia medii-a and medical botany. During the civil war he served as assistant medical director of the Army of Virginia, and then in Louisiana till 1864. At the close of the war he was brevetted lieutenant-colo- nel. On his return to Chicago. Dr. Ranch pub- lished a paper on " Intramural Interments and their Influence on Health and Epidemics " (Chi- cago, 1866). He aided in reorganizing the health service of the city, and in 1867 was appointed member of the newly created board of health and sanitary superintendent, which office he filled un- til 1873. During his incumbency the great fire of 1871 occurred, and the task of organizing and en- forcing the sanitary measures for the welfare of 112,000 houseless men, women, and children was suddenly thrown upon his department. In 1876 he was elected president of the American public health association, and delivered the annual ad- dress on the " Sanitary Problems of Chicago " at the 1877 meeting of the association. In 1877, when the Illinois state board of health was created, Dr. Rauch was appointed one of its members, and elected its first president. He was elected secre- tary, to which office he had been re-elected annual- ly for years. In 1878-'9 the yellow-fever epidem- ics in the sout.hwc-i enga^'d his attention, result- ing in the formation of the sanitary council of the Mississippi valley and the establishment of the river-inspection service of the National board of health, inaugurated by Dr. Rauch in 1879. His investigations on the relation of small-pox to foreign immigration are embodied in an address before the National conference of state boards of health at St. Louis, 13 Oct., 1884, entitled " Prac- tical Recommendations for the Exclusion and Pre- vention of Asiatic Cholera in North America" (Springfield, 1884). In 1887 he published the pre- liminary results of his investigations into the char- acter of the water-supplies f Illinois. 1'r. Ranch was a member of many scientific bodies and the author of monographs, chiefly in the domain of sanitary science and preventive medicine. His chief work as a writer is embodied in tin iv|M,it- of the Illinois state board of health in eight volumes. RATE. Charles Godlove. physician, b. in Sax- ony. 11 May, 1820; d. 6 Aug., 1896. He was graduated at the College of teachers in Baul/' -n. Saxony, in 1841, and at Philadelphia medical col- lege in 1850. From 1864 till 1871 he was professor of pathology and practice at the Homoeopathic col- lege of Pennsylvania, and at Hahnemann medical college in Philadelphia. He is the author of " I lit- neue Seelenlehre Dr. Beneke's, nach methodischen Grundsatzen fur Lehrer bearbeitet" (Bautzen, 1847); "Special Pathology and Diagnostics with Therapeutic Hints" (Philadelphia, 1868); and Annual Record of Homoeopathic Literature " (New York, 1870).
RAUM, Green Berry, commissioner of internal revenue, b. in Golconda, Pope co., 111., 3 Dec., 1829. He received a common-school education, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1853. In 1856 he removed with his family to Kansas, and at once affiliated with the Free-state party. Becoming ob- noxious to the pro-slavery faction, he returned the following year to Illinois and settled at Harris- burg. At the opening of the civil war he made his first speech as a " war " Democrat while he was attending court at Metropolis, 111. Subsequently he entered the army as major of the 56th Illinois regiment, and was promoted lieutenant-colonel, colonel, and brevet brigadier-general. He was made brigadier-general of volunteers on 15 Feb., 1865, which commission he resigned on 6 May. He served under Gen. William S. Rosecrans in the Mississippi campaign of 1862. At the battle of Corinth he ordered and led the charge that broke the Confederate left and captured a battery. He was with Gen. Grant at Vicksburg, and was wounded at the battle of Missionary Ridge in No- vember, 1863. During the Atlanta campaign he held the line of communication from Dalton to Acworth and from Kingston to Rome, Ga. In October, 1864, he re-enforced Resaca, Ga., and held it against Gen. John B. Hood. In 1866 he ob- tained a charter for the Cairo and Vincennes rail- road company, aided in securing its construction, and became its first president. He was then elected to congress, and served from 4 March, 1867, till 3 March, 1869. in 1876 he was president of the Illinois Republican convention, and in the same year he was a delegate to the National convention of that party in Cincinnati. He was appointed commissioner of internal revenue, 2 Aug., 1876, and retained the office till 31 May, 1883. During this period he collected $850,000,000 and disbursed $30,000,000 without loss. He wrote "Reports" of his bureau for seven successive years. He is also the author of " The Existing Conflict between Republican Government and Southern Oligarchy " (Washington, 1884). He afterward engaged in the practice of law in Washington, D. C.
RAUMER, Friedrich Ludwiar Georg von (row -mer), German historian, b. in Woerlitz, near Dessau, 14 May. 1781: d. in Berlin. 14 May. is;:',. He studied in the universities of Halle and Gdt- tingen, was a civil magistrate in 1801, became in 1809 councillor to the >tale chancellor. Count von Hardenberg, was professor of history in the University of Breslau in 1811-'16, and in l*l'.i became professor of political economy in the University of Berlin. He was elected to the parliament of Frankfort by the latter city in IM*. and appointed by the Archduke John of Austria, vicar of the German empire, his ambassador to Paris in 1S4S. From 1851 up to the time of his death he was a member of the house of lords of Prussia. After 1816 Raumer undertook several journeys through France. Italy. Switzerland, and the United St.ii>-.which he visited in 1841-'3 and again in ]s."i:i-'."i. He is justly considered as one of tin- great historians of the 19th century. His works include (ie-rhiehle der Iloheustaufen und ihrer Zeit "