Page:Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography (1900, volume 5).djvu/41

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the naval committee. lie was active in his efforts for emancipation and for necessary taxation. and the closing sentence of his speech in congress in 1861—“ Tax. fight. emancipate "—hecame a watch- \vord of his party. He was in tht legislature in 1870—1. and was defeated as a candidate of the Liberal Republican party in 1872. in 1H7?) he was a member of the Maine constitutional convention. He retired from the practice of law after his con- gressional service. Mr. Pike was an early and active Abolitionist. a friend of education. and for many years :11] eminent member of the ban—Frederick‘s wife. Mary llayden (.‘reen. b. in Eastport. Me.. 30 _\'o\'.. 1835. \v s graduated at (‘harlestown female seminary in 1H43. aml married Mr. l’ikc in 1846. She published her first book—“ Ida May." a novel, dealing with slavery and southern life among the wealthier classesllioston. 1H5—t)—under the pen- name of “ Mary Langdon." and 60.001) copies of the book were Sold in eighteen months. She must. not be confounded with the writer of a song enti- tled “Ida May." published simultaneously with the novel. who subsequently issued numerous hooks as the " author of lda May.” Mrs. Pike's other Works are “(‘aste." under the pen-name of "Sidney .\. Story. Jr." (1856). and “ Agnes " (1851-1).

PIKE. Zebulon Montomery. soldier. b. in Lamberton. N. .l.. 5 .Jan.. 1779: d. in York (now Toronto). Canada. ‘27 April. 1813. Ilis father, Zebulon (h. in Ncmersey in 1751 : d. in Lawrence- burg, Ind.. 27 July, 1834). was a captain in the llevolutionary army, was in Gen. Arthur St. (‘lair's defeat in 1791. and was hrevetted lieutenant—colonel iu the 1'egul:u‘-arm_v. 10 July. 1H12. \Yhile the son was a child his father removed with his family to Bucks county. Pa.. and thence in a few years to Easton where the ed. He was ap- pointed an en- sign in his fa- ther's regiment. Mareh.1799. 1st lieutenant, in No- vember. and cap- tain in August, 1806. \Yhile ad- vancing through the lower grades of his profession he supplemented the deficiencies of his education by the study Of Latin. French, and mathemat—

ics. After the

purchase of Louisiana from the French, Lieut. Pike was appointed to conduct an ex :edition to trace the Mississippi to its source. and. eaving St. Louis. 9 Aug.. 1Ht15. he returned after nearly nine months‘ ex- ploration and constant e_\posure to hardship. having satisfactorily performed this service. In 1506—"? he was engaged in geographical explorations in Louisiana territory. in the course of which he dis— covered "Pike's peak" in the Rocky mountains. and reached Rio Grande river. Having been found on Spanish territory. he and his party were taken to Santa Fe: but. after a long cxamination and the seizure of his papers. they were rcleaSed. He ar- rived at Natchitoches. 1 July, 1507. received the thanks of the government. and in 1810 published a narrative of his two expeditions. He was made major in 1508. lieutenant-colonel in 1309. deputy quartermaster—general, 3 April, 1812, colonel of the 15th infantry. 6 July. 1H12. and brigadier-general. 1? March. 1813. Early in l-N‘li)‘ he was assigned to the principal army as adjutant- and inspector-gen- eral. and selected to commaml an expedition against York (now Toronto». Upper Canada. On ‘27 April the fleet eonveying the troops for the attack on York reached the harbor of that town. and measures \vere taken to land then) at once. Hen. Pike landed I with the main body as soon as practic the. and. the enemy’s advanced parties falling back before him. he took one of the rcdoubts that had been constructed for the main defence of th: plaee. The column was then halted until arrangements were made for the attack on another redoubt. l \Yhile Gen. Pike and many of his soldiers were seated on the ground. the. magazine of the fort exploded. a mass of stone fell upon him. and he was fatally injured. surviving but a few hours.

PHAT. Ignatz Anton. landscape-gardener. h. l in St. Agatha. Austria. 27 June. 1H2": d. in New York city. 17 Sept“ 1H7“. Ile received a collegiate education at Vienna. and studied at. the botanical gardens in that city and Schi'nnbrunn. His first work of magnitude was laying out Prince l\letter- nich‘s grounds. He remained attached to the ini- perial botanical gardens in Schiinbrunn from 1843 till 1H53. when he came to this country and became chief gardener on Thomas Mctcalf's estate near ' Augusta. (ta. Ile held this post till 1856. when he returned to Vienna. and was made director of the botanical gardens: but afterashort stay in his na- tive land he returned to New York. and in 1-557 was appointed chief landsca}re—gardeuer in Central I park. In addition to his personal superintemlence of the entire park. which continued till his death. I he planned and superintended many improvemcnts in the public squares of the city of New York. Ile wrote a work on botany (Vienna). and a small one on lam sc:|pc,--gardening (Linz. Austria).

PILCHER. Elijah Homes. clergyman, b. in Athens. Ohio. :2 June. lHlt): d. in Brooklyn, N. Y_, 7 April. 1887. Llc was educated at ()hio univer- sity, and-entering the ministry of the Methodist EpiscOpal church. held pastorates both in this country and in ('anada. lle represented his de- nomination in Michigan four times in the general eonference ot' the Methodist Episcopal church. “as for four years a melnber of its book committee. and aided in establishing the Michigan “(‘hristian Ad- vocate,” and in founding Albion college. in which he was professor of history and belles—lettres. lle was a regent of Michigan university five years. one of the originators of the Agricultural college at Lansing. and was secretary of the Detroit Confer- ence nine years. llc was the author of “ llistory of Protestantism in Michigan " (Detroit. 1578).

PILE. William A., soldier, b. near Indianapolis. Ind.. 11 Feb“ 1521!: d. in Monrovia. t‘al.. 7 July, 1889. He studied theology. and became a clergyman of the Methodist Episcopal church and a member of the Missouri conference. lle joined the National army as chaplain of a regiment of Missouri volunteers in 15131. and took command of a light battery in 1562. He was subsequently placed at the head of a regiment of infantry. promoted brigadier-gencral of volunteers. 2“ Dec" 1863. and served till the close of the war. being mustered out. ‘24 Aug. 15115. Ile was elected to congress from Missouri. and served from 4 March. lHtii. till 3 March. 1869. but “as defeatcd as the Republican candidate for the next congress. Mr. Pile was appointed by President Grant governor of New Mexico. served in Mutt—‘70. and was minister resident at Yenezuela from 23 May, 1571. till his resignation in 1-874.