took an active part in the organization of the general synod in 1821, and was throughout his life one of the leaders of that body. He was the author of the formula for the government and discipline of the Evangelical Lutheran church, which, adopted by the general synod in 1827, has become the ground-plan of the organization of that body. From its establishment in 1826 till his resignation in 1864 he was chairman of the faculty of the theological seminary at Gettysburg, Pa., and for four years he was the only instructor. The degree of D. D. was conferred on him in 1830 by Rutgers and the University of Pennsylvania. In 1846 he took an active part in the establishment of an ecclesiastical connection between the Lutheran church in Europe and America, and was a delegate to the Evangelical alliance which met in London during that year. He aided much in preparing the way for the latter by his “Fraternal Appeal” to the American churches, with a plan for union (1838), which was circulated extensively in England and the United States. His published works number more than one hundred. Among them are “Biblical Theology of Storr and Flott,” translated from the German (2 vols., Andover, 1826; reprinted in England, 1845); “Elements of Popular Theology” (1834); “Kurzgefasste Geschichte der Christlichen Kirche, auf der Grundlage der Busch'en Werke” (Gettysburg, Pa., 1834); “Fraternal Appeal to the American Churches on Christian Union” (Andover, 1838); “Portraiture of Lutheranism” (Baltimore, 1840); “Retrospect of Lutheranism” (1841); “Psychology, or Elements of Mental Philosophy” (New York, 1842); “Dissertation on Capital Punishment” (Philadelphia, 1845); “The American Lutheran Church, Historically, Doctrinally, and Practically Delineated” (1851); “Lutheran Manual” (1855); “American Lutheranism Vindicated” (Baltimore, 1856); “Appeal on Behalf of the Christian Sabbath” (Philadelphia, 1857); “Evangelical Lutheran Catechism” (Baltimore, 1859); “The Church of the Redeemer” (1867); “The Unity of Christ's Church” (New York, 1870); and a large number of discourses and addresses, and articles in the “Evangelical Review” and other periodicals. — Samuel Simon's son, Samuel Mosheim, author, b. in New Market, Shenandoah co., Va., 12 Jan., 1823; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 12 May, 1863, wrote his name Smucker. He was graduated at Washington college, Pa., in 1840. After studying theology and being licensed to preach, he accepted a call from the Lutheran church at Lewiston, Pa. In 1845 he became pastor of the 1st church in Germantown, Pa., but in October, 1848, received an honorable dismissal from his synod, and studied law at the Philadelphia law-academy, where he served as secretary. In January, 1850, he was admitted to the bar, and at once began practice. In March, 1853, he removed to New York city, but after two years returned in Philadelphia, and thenceforth employed himself chiefly in writ- ing. His publications include “Errors of Modern Infidelity” (Philadelphia, 1848); “Election of Judges by the People” and “Constitutionality of the Maine Liquor Law” (1852); “The Spanish Wife, a Play, with Memoir of Edwin Forrest” (New York, 1S54): “Court and Reign of Catherine II., Empress of Russia” (1855); “Life and Reign of Nicholas I. of Russia,” “Life of John C. Frémont, with his Explorations,” and “Life and Times of Alexander Hamilton” (Philadelphia, 1856); “History of the Mormons, Edited and Enlarged” (New York, 1856); “Life and Times of Thomas Jefferson” and “The Yankee Slave-Driver” (Philadelphia, 1857); “Memorable Scenes in French History” and “Arctic Explorations and Discoveries” (New York, 1857); “Life of Dr. Elisha Kent Kane and Other American Explorers” and “History of Napoleon III.” (Philadelphia, 1858); “History of the Four Georges” and “History of All Religions” (New York, 1859); “Life, Speeches, and Memorials of Daniel Webster” (Philadelphia, 1859); “Life and Times of Henry Clay,” “Life of Washington,” “Blue Laws of Connecticut,” and “History of the Modern Jews” (1860); and published vol. i. of “A History of the Civil War in the United States” (1863). — Another son of Samuel Simon, Beale Melanchthon, clergyman, b. in Gettysburg, Pa., 26 Aug., 1827; d. in Pottstown, Pa., 18 Oct., 1888. He was graduated at Pennsylvania college in 1844, studied at Gettysburg theological seminary, was licensed to preach in 1847, and in 1849 ordained to the Lutheran ministry by the synod of Virginia. In 1870 he received the degree of D. D. from the University of Pennsylvania. He was pastor at Martinsburg, Va., Allentown, Easton, and Reading, Pa., and since 1880 at Pottstown, Pa., and held many offices in connection with his denomination. He was one of the founders of the general council in 1867, a delegate to every convention since its organization, and uninterruptedly a member of its most important committees. Dr. Schmucker was a fine liturgical scholar, and performed more than any other man for the liturgical and hymnological development of the Lutheran church. He was co-editor of the “Hallesche Nachrichten” (Allentown, Pa., and Halle, Germany, vol. i., 1884; English ed., Reading, Pa., vol. i., 1882), which is the primary source of information concerning the early history of the Lutheran church in this country. Dr. Schmucker also edited “Liturgy of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania” (Philadelphia, 1860); “Collection of Hymns of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania” (1865); “Church-Book of the General Council” (1868); and “Ministerial Acts of the General Council” (1887). He published numerous articles on doctrinal, historical, and liturgical subjects, of which many have been republished separately in pamphlet-form.
SCHNECK, Benjamin Shroder, clergyman. b., in Upper Bern, Berks co., Pa., 14 March, 1806; d. in Chambersburg, Pa., 19 April, 1874. He was educated by his father, a German school-master of Reading, studied theology, and was ordained to the ministry of the German Reformed church on 5 Sept., 1826. He was pastor of congregations in Centre county. Pa., till 1834, preaching in both English and German, and then in Gettysburg for one year. He took charge in 1835 of the "Weekly Messenger" at Chambersburg, and in 1840 of the "Reformirte Kirchenzeitung," the German organ of his church. He still continued editor of the "Weekly Messenger," with an assistant, till 1844, when he resigned, resuming charge again in 1847, and giving it up finally in 1852. He retired from the editorship of the German paper in 1864. when