Page:Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography (1900, volume 5).djvu/160

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to join Gen. John Mclntosh at Augusta, and to move with him toward Savannah in advance of the army of Gen. Benjamin Lincoln. Before the enemy was aware of his presence he captured an outpost, and, after several skirmishes, established permanent communications with the French fleet at Beaufort. He rendered great services during the siege of Savannah, and in the assault of 9 Oct. commanded the whole cavalry, both French and American. Toward the close of the action he received a shot in the upper part of his right thigh, and was taken to the U. S. brig “Wasp.” He died as the vessel was leaving the river. His body was buried at sea, but his funeral ceremony took place afterward in Charleston. Congress voted a monument to his memory, which has never been erected, but one was raised by the citizens of Savannah, of which Lafayette laid the corner-stone during his visit to the United States in 1824. It was completed on 6 Jan., 1855, and is represented in the accompanying illustration.

PULITZER, Joseph (pul'-it-zer), journalist, b. in Buda-Pesth, Hungary, 10 April, 1847. He was educated in his native city and came to this country in early youth. Soon after arriving in New York he went to St. Louis, where he quickly acquired a knowledge of English, became interested in politics, and was elected to the Missouri legislature in 1869, and to the State constitutional convention in 1874. He entered journalism at twenty as a reporter on the St. Louis “Westliche Post,” a German Republican newspaper, then under the editorial control of Carl Schurz. He subsequently became its managing editor, and obtained a proprietary interest. In 1878 he founded the “Post-Dispatch” in that city by buying the “Dispatch” and uniting it with the “Evening Post,” and he still retains control of the journal. In 1872 he was a delegate to the Cincinnati convention which nominated Horace Greeley for the presidency, and in 1880 he was a delegate to the Democratic National convention, and a member of its platform committee from Missouri. In 1883 he purchased the New York “World,” which, after twenty-three years of existence under various managers, had achieved no permanent success, and he has greatly increased its circulation. He is at present its editor and sole proprietor. He was elected to congress in 1884, but resigned a few months after taking his seat, on account of the pressure of journalistic duties.

PULLMAN, George Mortimer, inventor, b. in Chautauqua county, N. Y., 3 March, 1831; d. in Chicago, 19 Oct., 1897. He was clerk for a country merchant, and at seventeen joined an elder brother in the cabinet-making business in Albion, N. Y. At twenty-two he successfully undertook a contract for moving warehouses and other buildings, along the line of the Erie canal, then being widened by the state. In 1859 he removed to Chicago and engaged extensively in the then novel task of raising entire blocks of brick and stone buildings. In 1858 his attention was first directed to the discomfort of long-distance railway travelling, and he determined, if possible, to offer the public something better. In 1859 he remodelled two old day-coaches of the Chicago and Alton road into sleeping-cars, which at once found favor and established a demand for improved travelling accommodation. In 1863 he began the construction at Chicago of a sleeping-ear upon the now well-known model, which was destined to associate his name inseparably with progress in railway equipment. It was named the “Pioneer,” and cost about $18,000. From this small beginning he continued to develop his ideas for comfort and safety in railway travel, till Pullman cars are now known all over the world. The Pullman palace-car company, of which he was president, was organized in 1867, and it now operates over 1,400 cars on more than 100,000 miles of railway.

Appletons' Pullman George Mortimer.jpg
Appletons' Pullman George Mortimer signature.jpg

In 1887 he designed and established the system of “vestibuled trains,” which virtually makes of an entire train a single car. They were first put in service upon the Pennsylvania trunk lines, and are now to be found on many other railroads. In 1880, in obedience to the imperative demand of the Pullman company for increased shop-facilities, and to give effect to an idea he had long cherished of improving the social surroundings of the workmen, he founded near Chicago the industrial town of Pullman, which now contains over 11,000 inhabitants, 5,000 of whom are employed in the company's shops. Architecturally the town is picturesque, with broad streets, handsome public buildings, and attractive houses, supplied with every modern convenience, for the employés. According to mortality statistics, it is one of the most healthful places in the world. Mr. Pullman had been identified with various public enterprises, among them the Metropolitan elevated railway system of New York, which was constructed and opened to the public by a corporation of which he was president. — His brother, James Minton, clergyman, b. in Portland, Chautauqua Co., N. Y., 21 Aug., 1836, was graduated at St. Lawrence divinity-school, Canton, N. Y., in 1860. He was pastor of the 1st Universalist church, Troy, N. Y., from 1861 till 1868, when he was called to the 6th Universalist church. New York city, where he remained until 1885. He organized and was first president of the Young men's Universalist association of New York city in 1869, was secretary of the Universalist general convention in 1868-'77, and chairman of the publication board of the New York state convention in 1869-'74. From 1870 till 1885 he was a trustee of St. Lawrence university, which gave him the degree of D. D. in 1879. Since 1885 he has been pastor of the 1st Universalist church in Lynn, Mass., and he is president of the associated charities of that city. His standpoint is the ethical as opposed to the magical interpretation of Christianity. He edited the “Christian Leader” several years, and has published reviews and lectures.

PULSIFER, David, antiquary, b. in Ipswich, Mass., 22 Sept., 1802; d. in Augusta, Me., 9 Aug., 1894. He studied in the district schools, and then went to Salem to learn bookbinding, where, in handling old records, his taste for antiquarian research was first developed. Subsequently he served as clerk in county courts, and transcribed several ancient books of records. In 1853 the governor of Massachusetts called the attention of the executive council to the perishing condition of the early records and recommended that the two oldest volumes of the general court records should