1849 led a revolt against the authority of the Hudson bay company. The son was a protégé of Archbishop Taché, and after completing his education at the Jesuit college in Montreal he returned to Red river. In October, 1809, he became secretary of the “Comité national des Metis,” an organization formed in the interests of the native people to resist the establishment of Canadian authority in the territories, which had then been lately acquired from the Hudson bay company. Riel, on behalf of the half-breeds, demanded part of the money that had been paid by Canada to the company, and when this was refused he opposed, at the head of a band of his countrymen, the entry of William McDougall, the first lieutenant-governor under the Dominion government. On 8 Dec., 1869, he was elected president of a provisional government that was established at Fort Garry, after his followers had taken possession of that place, and captured Dr. John Christian Schultz and 44 Canadians. In February, 1870, Archbishop Taché, who had been sent for from Rome, was authorized to promise Riel and his followers a general amnesty. On 17 Feb., Riel captured Maj. Bolton and 47 men, and on 4 March one of his prisoners, Thomas Scott, an Ontario Orangeman, was executed by his order. On the approach of the expeditionary force under Sir Garnet (now Lord) Wolseley, Riel evacuated Fort Garry and escaped from the country. A reward of $5,000 was offered by the Ontario government for his apprehension, for his share in the execution of Thomas Scott. He soon afterward returned to Manitoba, but was not arrested, and in October, 1873, he was elected to the Dominion parliament for Proveneher, but was not permitted to take his seat. At the ensuing election in January, 1874, he was re-elected, and suddenly appeared in Ottawa and signed the roll of membership, after which he disappeared. He was expelled from parliament on 16 April, but was again returned for the same constituency by acclamation on 3 Sept., 1874. On 15 Oct. following a warrant of outlawry was issued against him by the court of Queen's bench of Manitoba, and in February, 1875, he was sentenced to five years' banishment and forfeiture of political rights. In 1877 he was confined for several months in Beaufort lunatic asylum, Quebec, under an assumed name, but whether this was owing to insanity, or for concealment and protection, is doubtful. He afterward removed to Montana, where, in the summer of 1884, a deputation of half-breeds invited him to lead them in an agitation for their rights in Manitoba. On 8 July, 1884, Riel arrived at Duck Lake with his family, and at once began a systematic agitation among the half-breeds and Indians. On 5 Sept. he stated the claims of his followers, which were not granted, and in March, 1885, he established for the second time a provisional government in the northwest. On the 18th the rebels made prisoners of the Indian agent at Duck Lake and several teamsters, and on the 25th they seized the government stores. The following day a collision occurred between the insurgents and a party of mounted police and volunteers under the command of Maj. L. N. F. Crozier, in which the former were successful. After the arrival of Maj.-Gen. Frederick D. Middleton with Canadian troops, the rebellion was speedily suppressed. Riel, who had been taken prisoner after the capture of Batoche, was conveyed to Regina, where he was tried and convicted of treason-felony, and sentenced to death. The execution of Riel was followed by great public excitement in the province of Quebec, and the government was bitterly denounced for not recommending the commutation of his sentence. It also led to a serious, though only temporary, defection of supporters of the administration; but finally Riel's French-Canadian sympathizers generally recognized the justice of his sentence, and admitted that his mental aberration was not of such a character as to render him irresponsible.
RIGAUD, Antoine, Baron (re-go). French sol- dier, b. in Agen, France. 14 May. 175s ; d. in New Orleans. La., 4 Sept., 1820. He enlisted in early life, served in this country under Rochambeau during the Revolution, was promoted a colonel in 17!"i. and major-general in 1807, and created baron, 19 March. 1808. He served afterward in Spain and Germany, and at Waterloo. After the fall of Na- poleon I., he refused to make his submission and tried to incite a rebellion in behalf of his former chief. He was sentenced to death, 10 May, 181 (i. but escaped to the United States, and was a promoter of the Champ d'Asile in Texas that was founded by exiled French officers. In 1828 he removed to New Orleans, and was attached to the U. S. en- gineering department. He executed some works in Mississippi river, and then went to Mexieo. w here he took part in a revolution. At the time of his death he was a teacher of mathematics in New Or- leans. Napoleon, in his" Memorial de Saint llelene," names him "the martyr of glorv." and left him in his will 20.000.
RIGAUD, Benoit Joseph André (re-go), Hay- tian soldier, b. in Les Caves, Hayti, in 17(il : d. there in 1811. He was a mulatto, and held a sub- ordinate command in the militia of the colony at the time of the revolution of 1789. At first he fought against the French, but he afterward es- poused their cause, was made a brigadier-general, and in 1798 became commander against the British. In association with Alexandra Petion (q. v.), he de- feated Dessalines at Grand Goave, took Jaemel. and defeated Toussaint L'Ouverture near that place; but. his resources being exhausted and his army reduced to a few hundred men. he abandoned the colony in Anim-l. 1MIO. and passed to France, where he lived in retirement. In 1810 he landed at Port au Prince, and was appointed by Petion commander of the Cayes; but he had scarcely ar- rived in the latter place when he proclaimed him- self dictator of the southern counties. Pet ion's advisers urged an expedition against the rebel, but the (.resident, being afraid of the popularity and military talents of his rival, acknowledged his in- dependence. Uigaud died a few months later after thoroughly organizing the administration of his republic. He was noteworthy for his magnanimity in contrast with the useless cruelties of the other Haytian chiefs.
RIGDON, Sidney, Mormon elder, b. in St. Clair township, Alleghany county, Pa., 19 Feb., 1793; d. in Friendship, N. Y., 14 July, 1876. He worked on a farm till 1817, and after some experience as a printer studied for the ministry, and was licensed to preach by the Baptist church on 1 April, 1819. In January, 1822, he became pastor of the first church in Pittsburg, Pa., where he labored successfully. Following the example of Alexander Campbell and Walter Scott, he withdrew from that church and assisted in establishing the Disciples, or Campbell denomination. He began preaching the new doctrine in Bainbridge, Ohio, in 1828, and a year later went to Mentor, where he was very successful. In the autumn of 1830 four Mormon elders, Parley P. Pratt, Ziba Peterson, Oliver Cowdery, and Peter Whitmer, on their way to Missouri, stopped at Mentor. Mr. Pratt, who had been a Baptist clergyman, obtained permission to preach