American Ethnology” (1846); “Notes on the Iroquois,” containing his report on the Six Nations (Albany, 1846; enlarged editions, New York, 1847 and 1848); “The Red Race of America” (1847); “Notices of Antique Earthen Vessels from Florida” (1847); “Address on Early American History” (New York, 1847); “Outlines of the Life and Character of Gen. Lewis Cass” (Albany, 1848); “Bibliographical Catalogue of Books, Translations of the Scriptures, and other Publications in the Indian Tongues of the United States” (Washington, 1849); “American Indians, their History, Condition, and Prospects” (Auburn, 1850); “Personal Memoirs of a Residence of Thirty Years with the Indian Tribes on the American Frontiers, 1812 to 1842” (Philadelphia, 1851); “Historical and Statistical Information respecting the History, Condition, and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States,” with illustrations by Capt. Seth Eastman, published by authority of congress, which appropriated nearly $30,000 a volume for the purpose (5 vols., 1851-'5); “Scenes and Adventures in the Semi-Alpine Region of the Ozark Mountains of Missouri and Arkansas,” a revised edition of his first book of travel (1853); “Summary Narrative of an Exploratory Expedition to the Sources of the Mississippi River in 1820, resumed and completed by the Discovery of its Origin in Itasca Lake in 1832” (1854); “Helderbergia, or the Apotheosis of the Heroes of the Anti-Rent War,” an anonymous poem (Albany, 1835); and “The Myth of Hiawatha, and other Oral Legends” (1856). “The Indian Fairy-Book, from Original Legends” (New York, 1855), was compiled from notes that he furnished to the editor, Cornelius Mathews. To the five volumes of Indian researches compiled under the direction of the war department he added a sixth, containing the post-Columbian history of the Indians and of their relations with Europeans (Philadelphia, 1857). He had collected material for two additional volumes, but the government suddenly suspended the publication of the work. — His wife, Mary Howard, b. in Beaufort, S. C., was his assistant in the preparation of his later works, when he was confined to his chair by paralysis and unable to use his hands. They were married in 1847, five years after the death of his first wife. Mrs. Schoolcraft was the author of “The Black Gauntlet, a Tale of Plantation Life in South Carolina” (Philadelphia, 1860).
SCHOONMAKER, Augustus, lawyer, b. in Rochester, Ulster co., N. Y., 2 March, 1828; d. in Kingston, 10 April, 1894. He was educated in common schools and by private study, worked on his father's farm, taught for several years, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1853, and practised in Kingston, N. Y. He was town superintendent of common schools for several years, and county judge of Ulster county from 1864 till 1872. In 1876-'7 he was a member of the state senate, and in 1878-'9 he was attorney-general of New York. From 1883 till 1887 he served as a civil service commissioner of the state, and on the constitution of the inter-state commerce commission in 1887 he was appointed one of its members.
SCHOONMAKER, Cornelius, member of congress, b. in Rochester, Ulster co.. N. Y., in June, 1745; d. in Shawangunk, Ulster co., in February or March, 1796. He sat in the state assembly from the adoption of the constitution in 1777 till 1790, was a member of the convention that adopted the Federal constitution in 1788, and served in congress from 24 Oct., 1791, till 3 March, 1793; — His grandson, Marius, b. in Kingston, N. Y., 24 April, 1811; d. there, 5 Jan., 1894, was graduated at Yale in 1830, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1833, and hud practised in Kingston. He was a member of the state senate in 1850-'1, and, as chairman of a special committee on the code drew up amendments that constituted a thorough revision of the act. He was elected to congress as a Whig, and served from 1 Dec., 1851, till 3 March, 1853. In 1854 he was auditor of the canal department, and in 1855-'6 he served as superintendent of the bank department of the state of New York. He was president of the Kingston board of education from its establishment in 1863 till 1872, and in 1867 was a member of the State constitutional convention. He had published speeches in congress on “Public Lands” (Washington, 1852) and “The Slave Question” (1852), and is the author of a “History of Kingston from its First Settlement to 1820,” which was published in 1888.
SCHOONMAKER, Martinus, clergyman, b. in Rochester, Ulster co., N. Y., in 1737; d. in Flatbush, N. Y., in 1824. He was licensed to preach in 1765, was pastor of the Dutch Reformed church at Gravesend for several years, and then of the one at Harlem till 1784, when he fixed his residence at Flatbush, and assumed charge of the six congregations in Kings county. During the Revolution he was an earnest and influential Whig. He was the last of the ministers that preached only in Dutch till the end of their lives. The church, six-sided and with a funnel-roof, in which he ministered at New Utrecht, is shown in the illustration.
SCHOTT, Charles Anthony, civil engineer, b. in Mannheim, Germany, 7 Aug., 1826. He studied at the Lyceum in Mannheim, and then was graduated as a civil engineer in 1847 at the Polytechnic school in Carlsruhe. In 1848 he came to the United States and entered the service of the coast survey. He was advanced to the grade of assistant in 1856, and still (1898) holds that place. Mr. Schott is a member of the Philosophical societies of Philadelphia and Washington, and a fellow of the American association for the advancement of science, and in 1872 was elected to the National academy of science. His writings include numerous memoirs of special investigations on hydrography, geodesy, and particularly on terrestrial magnetism, which have appeared in the annual reports of the U. S. coast and geodetic survey since 1854. In addition to these, he has published, through the medium of the Smithsonian institution, “Magnetical Observations in the Arctic Seas,” reduced and discussed from material collected by Elisha K. Kane (1858); “Meteorological Observations in the Arctic Seas,” likewise collected by Elisha K. Kane during the second Grinnell expedition (1859); “Astronomical Observations in the Arctic Seas,” from data collected by Elisha K. Kane (1860); “Tidal Observations in the Arctic Seas” (1860); “Meteorological Observations in the Arctic Seas,” from results made on board the arctic searching yacht “Fox” in Baffin bay and Prince Regent's inlet in 1857-'9 (1862); “Physical Observations in the Arctic Seas,” from data collected by Isaac I. Hays (1867); “Results of Meteorological observations made at