about 600 — all Hebrews. In 1659 the Dutch company, organized in Amsterdam for the colonization of Guiana, sent a party of 250 Jewish emigrants, and 150 more from Leghorn followed in the next year. The colony was destroyed in 1664 by Le Fèvre de la Barre, who retook Cayenne, and again expelled all Hebrews, Spranger being killed while he was defending his dominion.
SPREAD, Henry Fenton, artist, b. in Kinsale, Ireland, 21 Oct., 1844; d. in Chicago, 3 Sept., 1890. He began the study of art at the South Kensington schools, and later studied with William Riviere and Henry Warren. In 1863 he went to Brussels and became the pupil of Ernest Slingineyer. The following year he went to Australia, settling in Melbourne, and painted numerous portraits. In 1870 he came to the United States, spent a short time in New York, and then removed to Chicago, where he afterward resided. He was elected an academician of the Chicago academy of design in 1871, and became its professor of drawing and painting. This post he held for about twelve years, during which time the name of the institution was twice changed, first to Academy of fine arts, and then to Art institute. He left the institute to make a two years' tour in Italy, and on his return founded Spread's art academy. He was also instrumental in organizing the Chicago society of artists, of which he was the president. Among his works are “Chicago rising from her Ashes,” and “Sad News.”
SPRECHER, Samuel, clergyman, b. near Hagerstown, Md., 28 Dec., 1810. He was educated at Pennsylvania college and theological seminary, Gettysburg, Pa., in 1830-'6, licensed by the Lutheran synod, and was pastor of churches of that denomination in Harrisburg. Pa., Martinsburg, Va., and Chambersburg, Pa., from 1836 till 1849, after which he was president of Wittenburg college, Springfield, Ohio, until 1874. Since that year he has been professor of systematic theology there. Washington college, Pa., gave him the degree of D. D. in 1850, and Pennsylvania college that of LL. D. in 1874. Dr. Sprecher is the author of “The Providential Position of the Evangelical Churches of this Country at this Time” (Selinsgrove, 1864); “Groundwork of a System of Evangelical Lutheran Theology” (Philadelphia, 1879); and various addresses.
SPRING, Edward Adolphus, sculptor, b. in New York city, 26 Aug., 1837. He studied with Henry K. Brown, John Q. A. Ward, and William Rimmer, and spent several years in study abroad. In 1868 he discovered at Eagleswood, N. J., a fine modelling clay, peculiarly suited to terra-cotta work, and in 1877 he established at Perth Amboy the “Eagleswood Art Pottery.” At the National academy he exhibited a bust of Giuseppe Mazzini in 1873, and several terra-cotta pieces in 1878. He has given lectures on clay modelling in various cities in the United States, and since 1880 has been director of the Chautauqua school of sculpture.
SPRING, Robert, forger, b. in England in 1813; d. in Philadelphia, Pa., 14 Dec., 1876. He gained notoriety by his fabrication of autograph letters of Washington, Franklin, and Lord Nelson. Of his life prior to the time when he came to the United States nothing is known. Settling in Philadelphia about 1858, he began to deal in a small way in books relating to America, autographs, and prints, frequently obtaining literary rarities. Finding himself unable to supply the demand for genuine autograph letters of eminent men of the Revolution, he began to make and sell counterfeits. Being an expert penman, he soon acquired great facility in imitating the handwriting of Washington, Franklin, and others. These counterfeits were written on paper of the period, with ink prepared so as to give the appearance of age to the writing, and readily deceived those who were not experts. He was frequently arrested by the civil authorities for obtaining money under false pretences, but always escaped punishment by confessing his guilt and expressing contrition for his offence. Most of his counterfeit letters of Franklin and Nelson were sold in Canada and England. To sell his forgeries he resorted to various devices, finally pretending in his letters that he was a daughter of Gen. Thomas J. Jackson, who was compelled by poverty to part with family papers. By these means he sold many counterfeit autographs to Confederate bond-holders in England. At the time of his death he was an inmate of a hospital and in poverty. See “The American Antiquarian” for May, 1888.
SPRING, Samuel, clergyman, b. in Northbridge, Mass., 10 March, 1746; d. in Newburyport, Mass., 4 March, 1819. After graduation at Princeton in 1771 he studied theology there and under Dr. Joseph Bellamy, Samuel Hopkins, and Stephen West in New England, and was licensed to preach in 1774. In 1775 he joined the volunteer corps of 1,100 men under Col. Benedict Arnold as chaplain, marched with them to Canada, participated in the attack on Quebec, and saw Burr attempt to carry Montgomery from the field. At the close of 1776 he left the army, and in February, 1777, he preached to the congregation in Newburyport, of which he became pastor, serving from 1777 until his death. He possessed great influence and weight of character, was a leader of the Hopkinsian party (see Hopkins, Samuel), and was active in promoting the union of the two parties in the Congregational churches by the establishment of the Andover theological seminary, of which he was a founder. He was also an originator of the American board of commissioners for foreign missions. Dartmouth gave him the degree of A. M. in 1789, and Williams that of S. T. D. in 1806. He published several controversial works and about twenty-five miscellaneous discourses, including one on the death of Washington and one on the duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton. —
His son, Gardiner, clergyman, b. in Newburyport, Mass., 24 Feb., 1785; d. in New York city, 18 Aug., 1873, was graduated at Yale in 1805, taught in Bermuda for two years, and on his return studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1808, but abandoned his profession, studied at Andover theological seminary, and on 10 Aug., 1810, was ordained pastor of the Brick Presbyterian church in New York city, where he continued until his death, although he was offered the presidency of Hamilton and Dartmouth colleges. In 1856 he removed with his congregation to the new church on Murray hill. During the last years of his life Dr. Spring seldom preached, his pulpit being filled by an assistant. Hamilton gave him the degree of S. T. D.