on 30 March, 1849, was condemned to five years' solitary confinement for high treason. He was taken to the Bruchsal penitentiary on 12 May, but on the following day the revolutionists took possession of the government, and set him free. He went to the fortress of Rastadt, and stirred the soldiers of the garrison to revolt and fight on the side of the people against the Prussians. He was the leader of the Republican party in the constituent assembly. When that body was dissolved after the victory of the Prince of Prussia over the armies of Baden and the Palatinate, Struve again escaped into Switzerland. The authorities, after two months, expelled him from that country. He went to France, and afterward to England, and in 1851 emigrated to the United States. He edited the “Deutsche Zuschauer” in New York city, but soon discontinued its publication because of insufficient support. He wrote several novels and a drama in German, and then undertook, with the assistance of his wife, the composition of a universal history from the standpoint of radical republicanism. In the beginning of the civil war he entered the volunteer service as an officer in the 8th New York regiment, but retired when Prince Felix Salm Salm succeeded Louis Blenker as its colonel. In 1863 he returned to Germany, availing himself of a general amnesty, and thenceforth he devoted himself to literary pursuits and lectured on phrenology in Stuttgart, Coburg, and Vienna. He was appointed U. S. consul at Sonneberg in 1865, but the Thuringian states refused to issue his exequatur. His publications include “Politische Briefe” (Mannheim, 1846); “Das öffentliche Recht des deutschen Bundes” (2 vols., 1846); “Grundzüge der Staatswissenschaft” (4 vols., Frankfort, 1847-'8); “Geschichte der drei Volkserhebungen in Baden” (Bern, 1849); “Weltgeschichte” (6 vols., New York, 1856-'9; 7th ed., with a continuation, Coburg, 1866-'9); “Das Revolutionszeitalter” (New York, 1859-'60); “Diesseits und jenseits des Oceans” (Coburg, 1864-'5); “Kurzgefasster Wegweiser für Auswanderer” (Bamberg, 1867); “Pflanzenkost die Grundlage einer neuen Weltanschauung” (Stuttgart, 1869); “Das Seelenleben, oder die Naturgeschichte des Menschen” (Berlin, 1869); and “Eines Fürsten Jugendliebe,” a drama (Vienna, 1870). — His wife, Amalie, d. on Staten island, N. Y., in 1862, was the author of “Erinnerungen aus den badischen Freiheitskämpfen” (Hamburg, 1850); and “Historische Zeitbilder” (3 vols., Bremen, 1850).
STRYKER, John, soldier, b. 2 March, 1740; d. near Millstone, N. J., 25 March, 1776. At the beginning of the Revolutionary war he was commissioned a captain of a troop of light horse in the Somerset county, N. J., militia, and afterward attached to the state troops. He was a zealous patriot during the entire war and performed conspicuous service whenever the British foraging parties attempted to raid into the Jerseys. He had the confidence of the public to an unusual degree, especially in that portion of New Jersey around Millstone, Somerset co., where he owned a large inherited estate. His family mansion still remains to this day. — His son, Peter I., practised as a physician in Millstone and Somerville, was afterward a judge, and during three sessions was president of the New Jersey senate, and by virtue of this office acted for several months as governor of the state. — His grand-nephew, James, jurist, b. at Staten island, N. Y., 2 Jan., 1792; d. in Sharon Conn., 3 June, 1864. He was graduated at Columbia in 1809, studied law with De Witt Clinton, and began practice in New York city at the age of twenty-one. During the war with Great Britain in 1812-'15 he served as a captain. He removed to Buffalo in 1830, having been appointed judge of the court of Erie county, and retained that post for ten years. He edited for several years the Buffalo “Republic,” and he also founded and conducted the “American Quarterly Register and Magazine” (6 vols., Philadelphia, 1848-'51).
STRYKER, William Scudder, soldier, b. in Trenton, N. J., 6 June, 1838, was graduated at Princeton in 1858, and began the study of law. In the beginning of the civil war he assisted in organizing the 14th New Jersey volunteers, and in February, 1863, was ordered to Hilton Head, S. C., where he served as aide to Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore, with the rank of major, participating in the capture of Morris Island and in the night attack on Fort Wagner. Returning to the north on account of illness, he became senior paymaster in charge of all disbursements in the district of Columbus, Ohio, was brevetted lieutenant-colonel for meritorious services, and resigned on 30 June, 1866. Soon afterward he was placed on the military staff of the governor of New Jersey, and since 12 April, 1867, he has filled the office of adjutant-general of the state. He was admitted to the bar in 1866, and for some time was president of the Trenton banking company. Gen. Stryker has compiled a “Roster of Jerseymen in the Revolutionary War” (Trenton, 1872) and a “Roster of New Jersey Volunteers in the Civil War” (1876). He has also published many monographs relating to the history of New Jersey, among these being “The Reed Controversy” (Trenton, 1876); “New Jersey Continental Line in the Virginia Campaign of 1781” (1882); “New Jersey Continental Line in the Indian Campaign of 1779” (1885); and “The New Jersey Volunteers (Loyalists) in the Revolutionary War” (1887).
STUART, Alexander Hugh Holmes, b. in Staunton, Va., 2 April, 1807; d. there, 13 Feb., 1791. His father, Archibald Stuart, saw service in the war of the Revolution, studied law under Thomas Jefferson, was a member of the convention that ratified the U. S. constitution, and became president of the state senate and judge of the general court of Virginia. The son spent one year at William and Mary college, and then studied law at the University of Virginia, where he was graduated in 1828. the same year he was admitted to practice in Staunton. He began his political career as a member of the Young men's Convention held in support of Henry Clay at Washington in 1832. He was elected to the Virginia house of delegates in 1836, and the two succeeding years, but declined re-election in 1839. He was a member of congress from 1841 till 1843, and took an active part in the debates. He was a presidential elector on the Clay ticket in 1844, and on the Taylor ticket in 1848, and was appointed by President Fillmore secretary of the interior, serving from 12 Sept., 1850, till 3 March, 1853. He was a delegate to the national convention that nominated Millard Fillmore for the presidency in 1856, sat in the Virginia senate from 1857 till 1861, and was a member of the Virginia convention of 1861. As an Old Line Whig he opposed the secession of his state to the last. After the surrender of Gen. Robert E. Lee at Appomattox, he was one of the leaders of the first movement in the south to re-establish peaceful relations with the U. S. government, and presided at a mass meeting at Staunton with that object on 8 May, 1865. He was elected to congress in the same year, but was excluded by the oaths that were required. In December, 1868, he began what was known as “the new movement” of the