Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/362

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ALLEN 322 ALLEN communication incurred hv I his murder. Sir James Ware says of Allen (-Works", ed. Harris, Dublin, 176!, a/). Webb, "Conip. of Irish Biogr", Dublin, 1S7S, :j) that "ho was of a turbulent spirit, but a man of hospitality and learnin<;, and a dilisent inquirer into antiquities." He belonged to the shifty and un- principled class of which Thomas Cromwell (q. v.) was leader and mouthpiece, and he closed unworthily the series of the old Catholic archbishops of Dublin; his successor, George Browne, was a formal apostate and begins the list of the Protestant prelates of the Anglican Church in Ireland. Bradv Eijiscopal Succession in England, Ireland, and Scotland (Rome, 1S76), I, 325 sqq.; Gairdner, in Diet, of Nat. Biogr. (London, 1885), I, 305-307; Wood, AthenoB Oionienses (erl. Bliss), I, 76; Meehan. in tr. Daly, Rise, In- crease and Fall of the Geraldines, Enrls of Desmond (Dublin, 1878), 53, 54; Ware, .Annals of Ireland, ad an. IBSi: Cox, Hibemia Anolicana, 234; Ware, In'sh Bishops (ed. Harris, Dublin 1764) 347: Bklle.sheim, Gesch. d. kathol. Kirche in Irland (Mainz, 1890), II, 5, 6, 16, 17. Thomas J. Shahan. Allen, John, priest and martyr. He was exe- cuted at Tyburn in the beginning of the year 1538, because he refused to subscribe to the ecclesiastical supremacy of Henry VIII. Stow, Chronicles; Cath. Magazine (1832,; Gillow. John J. a' Becket. Allen, William, Cardinal; b. England, 1532; d. Rome, 16 Oct., 1.594. He was the third son of John Allen, of Rossall, liancashire, and at the age of fifteen went to Oriel College, Oxford, where he graduated B. A. in 1550, and was elected Fellow of his College. In 1554 he proceeded M.A., and two years later was chosen Principal of St. Mary's Hall. For a short time he also held a canonry at York, for he had already determined to embrace the ecclesiasti- cal state. On the accession of Elizabeth, and the re-establishment of Protestantism, Allen was one of those who remained most stanch on the Catholic side, and it is chiefly due to his labours that the Catholic religion was not entirely stamped out in England. Having resigned all his preferments, he left the country in 1561, and sought a refuge in the university town of Louvain. The following year, however, we find him back in England, devoting himself, though not yet in priest's orders, to evangel- izing his native county. His success was such that it attracted notice and he had to flee for safety. For a while he made himself a missionary centre near Oxford, where he had many acquaintances, and later for a time he sought protection with the family of the Duke of Norfolk. In 1565 he was again forced to leave England, this time, as it turned out, for good. He was ordained priest at Mechlin shortly afterwards. The three years Allen spent as a mis- sioner in England had a determining effect on Iiis whole after life. For he found everywhere that the people were not Protestant by choice, but by force of circumstances; and the majority were only too ready, in response to his preaching and ministrations, to return to Catholicity. He W'as always convinced that the Protestant wave over the coimtry, due to the action of Elizabeth, could only be temporary, and that the whole future depended on there being a supply of trained clergy and controversialists ready to come into the country whenever Catholicity should be restored. It was to supply this neetl that he founded the College at Douay since identified with his name. Tlie idea first developed itself in his mind during a pilgrimage to Rome in company with Dr. Vendeville, Regius Professor of Canon Law in the Iniversity of Douay, in 1,507. No doubt this was one reason why he thought of Douay as a suitable place for his new college; but it was by no means the only one. Douay was a new university, founded by Pope l';iul IV, under the patronage of Iving Phili]) of Spain (in whose dominions it then was), for the special object of combating the errors of the Reforma- tion; and, what is still more to the purpose, it was already under Oxford influences. The first chan- cellor, Richard Smith, was an Oxford man, as were several of the most influential members of the uni- versity at the time when Allen began. It was his ambition to perpetuate Oxford influences and tradi- tions, and to make his new college practically a continuation of Catholic Oxford. A beginning was made in a hired house on Michaelmas Day, 1568. The means of support included, besides Allen's private income, and other voluntary donations, a yearly pension of 200 ducats from the King of Spain, and later on one of 100 gold crowns a month from the Pope. The number of students grew rapidly. Often more were received than the income warranted, a course rendered necessary by the urgent state of Catholic affairs, which Allen met in the spirit of faith; and in the long run, means were never wanting. The names of Thomas Stapleton, Richard Bristowe, Gregory Martin, Morgan Philips, and others are still well known to English Catholics, and arc themselves a sufficient record of the ability of Allen's early companions, and of the work done at the college. Allen had the power of instilling his spirit into his followers. They lived together without written rule, but in perfect mutual harmony, working for the com- mon cause. From the Douay press came forth a constant stream of controversial and other Catholic literature, which could not be printed in England on account of the Penal Laws. In this Allen himself took a prominent part. His writings are distin- guished by extent of learning and theological acumen. One of the chief works undertaken in the early years of the college was the preparation of the well-known Douay Bible (q. v.). The New Testament was pub- lished in 1582, when the college was at Rheims; but the Old Testament, though completed at the same time, was delayed by want of funds. It eventually appeared at Douay, in 1609, two years before the Anglican "Authorized Version". But the work for which Allen's college is now most famous was not part of his original scheme, but an outgrowth from it. This was the sending over of missionaries to work for the conversion of England in defiance of the law, while the countrj' still remained in the hands of the Protestants. There were practi- cally no Catholic bishops left, and the Marian clergy were rapidly dying out. Granted that the Protestant rule was to continue indefinitely, the onlj^ method to s;we the Catholics from extinction was to send priests from abroad, and Allen was given "faculties" for all England to impart to them. They had to face a hard and precarious life, often persecution, the rack, or even death. When found out they could be convicted of high treason, for which the punishment was to be hanged, drawn and quartered. More than one huntlred and sixty Douay priests are known to have been put to death, the great majority belonging to the secular clergy. Many more suffered in prison as Confessors for the Faith. Yet such Wiis the spirit which Allen infused into his students that they re- joiced at the news of each successive martyrdom, and by a special i)rivilege sang a solemn IIass of thanksgiving. And the success of the "Seminary Priests", as they were called, was such th;it at the <'nd of Elizabeth's long reign it is said IIkiI the king- dom was still at heart more half Catholic. In 1575 .llen made a second journey to R(mie, where he helped Pope (ircgory Xlll to found another college to send missionaries to England. For this [)urpose liossession was obtained of the ancient English hospice in the city, which was converted into a seminary. Returning to Dou.ay, .Vllen found a storm gathering against the English and in 1578 they were expelled from the town. The collegians took refuge at the University of Rheims, where they were well received,