Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/651

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of " lUustrissiino Moiisif^ioru " ami to enjoy a yearly pension of ."i.OOO francs. The government also pledges itself to keep yearly at its expense one student in the Propaganda College at Home, whence have come for a long time the secular priests of this territory. Moreover, at the request of the Prince of Montenegro, the riglit to the Old-Slavonic Liturgy was confirmed by the Holy See (originally conceded by Innocent IV, in 1LM<S, and renewed by Henedict XIV and Pius VI). It is in reality the Roman Liturgy translated into Old-Slavonic, and in this shape is m use among eighty or a luindretl thousand Catholic Slavs of Trieste, tibrz, Spalato, Sebenico, and other Dalmatian centres. Until lately it was printed in the Cyrillic alphabet, but since 1890, at the request of the archoishop, the Holy See has permitted the use of the (ilagolitic alphabet, to avoid similarity of usage with their scliismatic neighbours. (See Cyril a.\d Methodius.) A copy of the new mi.ssal, printed at the Projjaganda press in Rome (Ordo ct Canon Missu' Shnice, ISS") was presented by Leo XIII in l.sil.'i to (he Prince of Montenegro. Hy a decree of the Congregatit)n of the Con.sistory (7 March, 1902) Antivari is iledared the primatial see of Dalmatia, an honour which it enjoyed as early as the twelfth century. The present bishop is Monsignor Simon Milinovic, a Franciscan, elected 8 Oct., 1886.

Farlati, llli/r. Sacr. (1817). VII. 190; Nf.hf.r. in Kirchenhx.. XI, 22; Reclus-Keane, The Karth ami lUi Inhabitants (Europe), I, 179-182; Battanuieii, Ann. Font. Cath. (1903),

Elis.vbeth Chkistitch.

Antofogaste,THE Vic.\ri.\te Apostolic of, Chile, dependent on the Sacreil Congregation of Ecclesias- tical .\fTairs. By the treaty of Z\ November, 188-1 between Chile and Bolivia, the part of the province of .-Vntofogiuste which belonged to BoliWa was ceded to Chile. The population in 189,5 was 44,085. of which the city of .\ntofogaste contained 16,2.53. The area of the vicariate in square miles is 46,597. There are six parishes under the jurisdiction of the vncar-apostolic: Nuestra Senora del Carmen de Tocopilla, banta Marfa Mag<lalcna de Cobija, San Jos<5 de Antofogaste, San Felipe de Neri de Caracoles, San Juan Bautista de Calama, and San Pedro de Atcama. The ecclesiastical vicariate of Antofogaste antl that of Tarapacd depend directly on the Holy See, but appeals from their vicars should come to the Archbishopric of Santiago.

Iai I'rovincia Eccletiastica Chilena (Freiburg, 1895).

Antoine, P.\nL G.vbriel, a French theologian, b. at Lun(5ville, 10 January, 1678; d. at Pont-:V- Mous.son, 22 January, 174.3. At the age of fifteen he applied for admission into the Society of Jesus, and was received 9 October, 1693. On the com- pletion of his studies he taught "humanities" for several years, first at Pont-A-Mous-son, and then at Colniar. Returning to the former city, he occu- pied the chair of philo.sophy, and later that of the- ology with considerable success, the first edition of his "Dogmatic Theology" appearing in 1723, and three years later his "Moral Thcologj'" in three volumes. He was afterwards rector of the College of Pont-il-Mousson, where he died in his sixty-fifth year. His "Thcologia universa, sneculativa et dogmatica", embracing the whole field of schola.stic inquiry met with an enthusiastic reception, and at once stamped the author as among the first theo- logians of the age. It went through nine editions during his life, and ten after his death. It is re- markable for its clearness and .solidity. Still more flattering wa.s the reception accorded the "Thcologia nioralis universa," first published at Nancy in 1720, in duodecimo. It has since gone through sixty editions in different countries. The Roman edition of 1747, published by Philip Carbognano, O.M., contained

several additions to the original; among them, chapters on Condemned Propositions, Reserved, Decrees of Benedict \IV, etc. .Antoiiie's "Moral Theology" was so highly esteemed by Bene- dict XIV that he prescribed its by the students of the College of Propaganda, and it was likewise received by many of the bishops throughout France and Italy. Yet, despite the fact that it is remark- able for three qualities .seldom found unitetl, viz. brevity, clearness, and completeness, it is no longer a text-book at the present clay. For, in the opinion of the learned Gury, .Vntoine inclines too much towarils the side of severity, a judgment fully con- firmed by St. Alphonsus Liguori (Homo A]>., xvi, 108). Besides his theological works, .Vntoine pub- lished also several ascetical and devotional treatises. SoMMERVOGEl., BM. dc la c. de J., e. v.; Hurteh, A'omcn- dator, II, 1289.

George F. Johnson.

Anton Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick — LCneburc.- WoLFE.vniTTEL, a coiivcrt to the Catholic faith, b. 4 October, 1633; d. 27 March, 1714. In 168.5, with his brother August Rudolph, he became co-regent of the duchy, and on the tatter's death (1704) suc- ceeded to the throne. He was a very gifted and well educated man, the most .scholarly prince of his time, and, in the historj' of German literature, ranks as pioneer in the department of liistorical romance. He was also an accomplished dramatist and hyniri- writor. His bent, however, was toward the -study of the Fathers, and the points of variance between Catholics and Lutherans. He often conversed on such subjects with theologians of both sides, among them the Hildesheini canon, Rudolph May, and Araadeus Hamilton, a Theatine. He entered the Church secretly 10 January, 1710, but soon, in def- erence to the advice of Clement XI, made public his conversion in the presence of the Archbishop of Mainz. While he safeguarded officially the actual ecclesiastical and political conditions in his duchy, lie devoted himself earnestly to the interests of Catholicism. Among other works, he published, in Latin and German, a learned apology for his con- version entitled "Fifty Motives for preferring the Catholic religion to all others". It was soon sup- pressed, and is therefore a very rare book; an Italian translation of it was .sent to Clement XI. The Duke built Catholic churches in Brunswick and Wolfen- biittel, and obtained papal approval for their ad- ministration by the Bishops of Hildesheini. In a document signed 3 February, 1714, by his sons August and Ludwig, he provided that in the future the exercise of the Catholic religion should be free in his State. Two of his daughters, Henrietta and Augusta Dorothea, followed his example, and re- turned to the mother church.

Strerer in Kirchenlez.; I, 976, 78; Rass, Converlitenbilder, IX, 137.


Antonelli, Giacomo, Cardinal, Secretarj' of State to Pius IX, b. at Sonnino, in the Papal States, 2 .\pril. 1806; d. in Rome, 6 November, 1876. Of well-to-do parents later ennobled by Gregory XVI, he made his preliminary studies at the Uoman Seminarj-. and took up the law course at the Sapienza, obtaining the ilcgree of Doctor of both Laws in his twenty-first vear. On entering the diplomatic service of the Holy See lie wa.s appointed by Gregory X\'I suc- cessively secular prelate (18.30). referendary of the superior law court, as.sessor of the criminal tribunal, delegate to Orvieto, Viterbo. and Macerata. canon of St. Peter's (m.ade deacon, 1840). In 1841 he was made Minister of the Interior and in 184.5 Treasurer of the Apostolic Camera. Pius IX on his acce.s.sion to the pontifical throne (1846) made him cardinal with the diaconal title of St. .\gatlia alia Suburra (1847), and later the title of St. Maria in Via latd. The Pope