quent picture of the contemporary civil prosperity of Rome); Allard. Hialoire lies Persiculione (Pans, 1890); Neumann. (unfiuishc4l) Account of the Relations between the Imperial State and Chrislianilu (Leipzig, 1890); Renan, Marc-Auri-le (Paris, 1891 ); Lacouh-Gatet, Antonin le Pieux el son temps (Paris, 188t>); .'^M1TH, Diet, of Greek and Roman Biogr. (Lon- don, 1890). \. i;iO-212; Ramsey, The Church and the Roman Empire before .1. D. 170 (New York. 1893); Dill, Roman Society frum Xcro to Marcus Aurelius (New York, 1905).
Patrick J. Healy.
Antonio Maria Zaccaria, Saint, founder of the Clerks Regular of St. Paul, commonly known as the Barnabites; b. in Cremona, Italy, 1502; d. 5 July, 15.'59. While he was still an infant his father died, leaving the care of the child's education to his mother, who taiiglit him compassion for the poor and suffering by making him her almoner. After com- pleting the studies given in the schools at Cremona ne was sent to Padua for his philosophy, and in 1520, when he had finished this course, began the study of medicine in the university at that place. At the age of twenty-two he received his degree of Doctor of Medicine and returned to Cremona to practise his profession. Three years later he began to study theology and received holy orders in 1528. He now devoted himself with renewed energy to works of charity and mercy, visiting and consoling the sick in hospitals and poor-prisons. The ministry of preaching and the administration of the sacraments produced .such great fruit that St. Antonio was en- couraged to seek a larger field for his labours and to carry out a great project which he had formed for the good of souls. He went to the populous city of Milan, of which he was a burgess, and entered the Confraternity of Eternal Wisdom. Among the mem- bers of this religious body he allied himself with two priests, Fathers Ferrari and Morigia, and told them of his idea of founding a congregation of secular clergy. Northern Italy at this period was in a deplorable condition. Frequent wars had devastated the country. The advent of the liUtheran soldiery and their contempt for everything Catholic had spread the contagion of bad example, while famine and plague followed in the track of the soldiers. These scourges combined to produce a state of misery that appealed most powerfully to Antonio and his associates. "The Congregation of the Regular Clerks of St. Paid", St. Antonio's work, which began with five members, was canonically sanctioned by Pope Clement VII in 1533. Their rule bound them to "regenerate and revive the love of the Divine worship, and a truly Christian way of life by frequent preaching and the faithful admin- istration of the sacraments. "
The first superior of the new congregation was St. Antonio, who soon became known in Milan as an apostle. Besides giving conferences in churches to ecclesiastics and lay people, he went into the streets of the city with crucifix in hand, and produced great fruit in souls by preaching on the Passion and Death of Christ and the need of penance for sin. In 1536 he resigned the superiorship to Father Morigia and later went to Vicenza at the request of Cardinal Ritlolfi. There he succeeded in reforming morals and in l)ringing two rehgious communities of women to a stricter observance of their rule. In the latter labour he was greatly aided by a congregation of nuns "The AngeUcals of St. Paul", which he had founded in Milan. He introduced, also, the devo- tion of the "Forty Hours' Prayer", in Vicenza. The last two years of his life were spent in Milan. He sought there a more suitable church for his Con- gregation and accepted the offer of the church of St. Barnabas, but died before the affair was ar- ranged. From this church of St. Barnabas, the Congregation received the name by which its mem- bers are commonly known, i. e. Barnabites. Worn out by his voluntary penances, as well as by his un- tiring labours of charity, he was attacked by fever
during one of his missions. Knowing that this ill- ness was his last, he had himself brought to his native city, Cremona. There, in his mother's liouse, he re- ceived the last sacraments and peacefully expired at the early age of thirty-seven. His body was found incorrupt 27 years after his death. He was de- clared Blessed by Pope Pius IX in 1S49. (See Barnabites.) On 15 May, 1897, he was .solemnly canonized in St. Peter's, Rome, by Pope Leo XIII. His writings are: "Detti notabili, raccolti da varii autori" (Venice, 1583); "Constitutiones ordinis clericorum regularium " (not pubHshed); "Sermones super prseceptis Decalogi" (not published).
. Dubois, Le bienh. Ant. Maria Zaccaria, fondateur des Barnabites et des Angctiques de St. Paul (Tournay, 1896); St. A. M. Zaccaria, fondateur des Barnabites (Paris and Leipzig, 1897); Brevi vite dei Santi (Rome, 1897); Vita illus- trata di S. Antonio M, Zaccaria fondatore dei Bamabite. e dtlle Angeliche di S. Paolo (Cremona, 1897); Jeppa, Lebensbeschrei- bung des hi. Anton Maria Zaccaria, Stifters der Bamabaiten Germ. tr. (Fulda, 1900); Heimbucher, Die Orden und Con- gregationen der katholischen Kirche (Paderborn. 1897).
P.\TRicK H. Kelly.
Antonio of Vicenza, Maria, a Reformed Minorite, b. at Vicenza, 1 March, 1834; d. at Rovigiio, 22 June, 1884. After his ordination (1856) he devoted him- self to the study of scholastic authors, especially of St. Bonaventure whose " Breviloquium " he published in a new edition (Venice, 1874; Freiburg, 1881). He also edited the "Lexicon Bonaventurianum", (Venice, 1880), in which the terrainologj" of the .scholastics is explained. His contributions to hagiography include nineteen studies of the lives of saints of the Franciscan Order.
E. A. Pace.
Antonius, a supposed Latin Christian poet of the third century, under whose name there is printed in Migne (P. L., V, 261-282) an apologetic poem " Antonii carmen adversus gentes". Gallandi at- tributed it to an otherwise unknown Antonius, an imaginary contemporary of Commodian. But Mura- tori, says Dr. Bardenhewer, has shown that the poem belongs to St. Paulinus of Nola (351-431). There are two critical editions, by Oehler (Leipzig, 1847), and by Bursian (Munich, 1880), both of whom at- tribute it to Paulinus of Nola.
Bardenhewer, Patrologie (2d ed., Freiburg, 1901) 394. Thomas J. Shahan.
Antony, Franz Joseph, b. 1790, at Munster, Westphalia; d. there, 1837. He received Holy Orders, and in 1819 became choirmaster at the cathedral, succeeding his father as organist, in 1832. In addition to some songs he published four choral masses, and his erudite work " Archaologisch-litur- gisches Gesangbuch des Gregorianischen Kirclien- gesanges" (1829), and "Geschichtliche Darstelhing der Entstehung und VervoUkommnung der Orgel", 1832.
Kornmuller, Lct, der kirchl, Tonkunst: Baker, Bwgr, Diet, of Musicians; Riemann, Diet, of Music.
J. A. VOLKER.
Antwerp (Anvers, Antwerpen, Spanish Am- B^REs), a city of Belgium, in the archdiocese of MechUn, situated on the Scheldt (Kscaut), about sixty miles from the sea, at the confluence of the little river Schyn, once navigable. Its foundation was probably due to some wandering Teutonic tribe; the people were certainly Christian from about the middle of the seventh century (Diercx.sen, Antuerpia Christo nascens ab an. 641, etc., Antwerp, 1747-63, 1773), as is seen by the famous saints then met with in its history as the Irisli virgin Dympna, EHgius, Amandus and Willibrord. It was pillaged by the Northmen in 835, but soon arose from its ruins. In the tenth and eleventh centuries it appears as the capi- tal of the Margraves of .\ntwerp, and from that time to the Frcncli Revolution recognized, through all political vicissitudes, no other .source of authority